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  temperature simulation
Physical transport parameters are calibrated by temperature simulation, and them are used to simulate the profiles of NO3, PO4 and dissolved oxygen.
      
Interfaces produced with one constant temperature simulation method are rough, with several layers of atoms forming >amp;lt;110>amp;gt; chains and (111) facets.
      
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Figure 6 corresponds to a low-temperature simulation, and Figure 7 to a high-temperature simulation.
      
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A mathematical model, which describs soil water and heat movement with crop canopy shading, is presented in this paper based on the energy balance equation. The method of simulating soil surface temperature in the upper boundary condition, which is required in solving heat flow state, is also established. The model was applied to the field plots in the irrigation experimental station of Northwestern Agricultural University, the result shows that the field water and heat dynamics predicted by the model agree...

A mathematical model, which describs soil water and heat movement with crop canopy shading, is presented in this paper based on the energy balance equation. The method of simulating soil surface temperature in the upper boundary condition, which is required in solving heat flow state, is also established. The model was applied to the field plots in the irrigation experimental station of Northwestern Agricultural University, the result shows that the field water and heat dynamics predicted by the model agree well with the measured data. Finally the relationship of the components in field energy balance equation is analysed.

本文提出了一个描述作物覆盖条件下田间水热运移的数学模型,以能量平衡方程为基础,建立了求解热流分布定解问题中上边界条件所需的地表温度模拟方法。该模型经在西北农业大学灌溉试验站实际应用,模拟结果可靠。在此基础上分析了田间能量平衡方程中各分量间的比例关系。

In this paper, based on the experimental results, a series of frost damage index to Chinese cabbage in the plateau field are established and a simulating equation for minimum temperature is proposed. According to the climatic regularity and principle of frost, some measures to prevent frost damage are proposed.

根据试验结果的分析,确定高原露地大白菜霜冻指标,并建立了菜地最低温度模拟方程。分析霜冻气候规律,从农业气象角度提出防御冻害的措施。

Water-heat process in the Tibetan Plateau is significant to global climate change. Variances of soil moisture and soil temperature are the key factors of simulating water heat process. In this paper, a water and energy balance macroscale hydrological model is used to compare the simulated result with observed data on the step of 1 hour during 399 days in Tuotuohe. The simulated soil temperature was discussed. The simulated soil temperatures in 11 depths (0 m, 0.2 m, 0.4 m, 0.6 m, 0.8 m, 1 m, 1.3 m, 1.6 m, 2...

Water-heat process in the Tibetan Plateau is significant to global climate change. Variances of soil moisture and soil temperature are the key factors of simulating water heat process. In this paper, a water and energy balance macroscale hydrological model is used to compare the simulated result with observed data on the step of 1 hour during 399 days in Tuotuohe. The simulated soil temperature was discussed. The simulated soil temperatures in 11 depths (0 m, 0.2 m, 0.4 m, 0.6 m, 0.8 m, 1 m, 1.3 m, 1.6 m, 2 m, 2.3 m and 2.71 m) were tested. The NSE (Nash-Sufciffe Evaluation) at depths of 0 m, 0.2 m, 0.4 m, 0.6 m, 0.8 m, 1 m, 1.3 m and 1.6 m are greater than 0.9, at depth of 2 m is 0.882, at depth of 2.31 m is 0.7299, and at depth of 2.7 m is 0.369, which indicates that the model is stable in yearly scale and can simulate for a long period in the Tibetan Plateau. The NSE at 2.3 m and 2.71 m is not well either by using damping algorithm or by using constant algorithm, which indicates that the model needs to modify in the future, especially, the energy equation at the bottom of soil.

模拟青藏高原土壤水分和热量迁移过程的连续变化对于全球变化研究具有非常重要的意义,其准确模拟是提高陆面过程模拟精度的重要条件. 利用大尺度水文模型对沱沱河站点以 1 h为步长,共399 d的土壤温度模拟结果与观测结果的对比表明, 土壤中共11个不同深度的观测点的模拟温度总体的变化趋势与观测值一致, 可以进行长时间的模拟. 对于地表温度, 模拟的日变化幅度比实测的变化幅度大, 但均值一致, 原因在于模型的土壤参数中没有考虑有机质含量, 在计算能量平衡时需要增加该土壤参数. 对于土壤底部的土壤温度的连续模拟表明, 采用常数的土壤下界算法和倾斜的(damp ing)土壤下界算法均与观测值的变化具有一定的差别, 而常数的下界算法与观测值更为接近.

 
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