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液态
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  liquid
    The Simulation Study of Molecule Dynamics on Transition of Microstructure During the Rapid Cooling Process Form Al Liquid State(943K)to Amorphous State
    液态(943K)Al快速凝固为非晶态过程中微观结构的分子动力学模拟研究
短句来源
    Numerical Modeling and Experiment Investigation of Liquid Structure and Solidification Behavior of Al-Cu-Zn Alloys
    Al-Cu-Zn合金的液态结构和凝固行为的数值模拟与实验研究
短句来源
    Molecular Dynamics Simulation and Experimental Investigation on Heat Capacities of Liquid Metals
    深过冷液态金属比热的分子动力学模拟及实验研究
短句来源
    Study on the Micromechanism and Reaction between Low Carbon Steel Containing Si and Liquid Zn-Ni Alloy
    含硅低碳钢与液态锌镍合金的反应及微观行为的研究
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    A THERMODYNAMIC STUDY OF THE Fe-C SYSTEM——I. THERMODYNAMICS OF LIQUID Fe-C ALLOYS
    铁碳系统的热力学研究——Ⅰ.液态铁碳合金的热力学
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  liquid state
    The Simulation Study of Molecule Dynamics on Transition of Microstructure During the Rapid Cooling Process Form Al Liquid State(943K)to Amorphous State
    液态(943K)Al快速凝固为非晶态过程中微观结构的分子动力学模拟研究
短句来源
    The thermo-physical properties of Al-34% Mg-6% Zn(in wt.%) and Al-28%Mg-14%Zn alloys used for thermal energy storage applications,such as the specific heat capacity including solid and liquid state; the mass density in the temperature range 30~500℃; the melting temperature and the latent heat of fusion were determined by differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) and H-90 type Dilatometer.
    利用差示扫描量热仪(DSC)和H-90型膨胀仪,对潜热储能材料Al-34%Mg-6%Zn和Al-28%Mg-14%Zn合金的热物性参数——固液态时的比热容、30~500℃间的质量密度、熔化温度和熔化潜热等进行了测定。
短句来源
    SIMULATION OF LIQUID STATE STRUCTURES AND RAPID SOLIDIFICATION OF METALS
    金属的液态结构及快速凝固模拟
短句来源
    RESEARCH ON ABSORBING HYDROGEN SPECIAL PROPERTY OF LIQUID STATE ZL101 ALUMINIUM ALLOYS
    液态ZL101 Al合金吸氢特性的研究
短句来源
    Absorbing Hydrogen Characteristic of Liquid State ZL205A High Strength Aluminum Alloy
    液态ZL205A高强度铝合金的吸氢特性
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  “液态”译为未确定词的双语例句
    Actovoty of La_2O_3 in Liguid La_2O_3--CaF_2 and La_2O_3--CaF_2--SiO_2 Slags
    液态La_2O_3-CaF_2和La_2O_3-CaF_2-CaO-Si渣中La_2O_3的活度
短句来源
    MEASUREMENT OF SURFACE TENSION OF Pb-Sb MELTS AND ITS TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT
    液态Pb-Sb合金的表面张力及其温度系数的测定
短句来源
    An Investigation of Structures and Properties of a Mn-Mo-Co Maraging Steel by Rapid Solidification
    液态激冷Mn-Mo-Co马氏体时效钢组织结构和性能的研究
短句来源
    Parameters of positron annihilation in a Fe-3%Sialloy
    液态轧制Fe-3%Si中的正电子湮没参数
短句来源
    BORIDES IN RAPIDLY SOLIDIFIED Fe_(70)Cr_(18)Mo_2 SiB_9 Allcy
    液态急冷Fe_(70)Cr_(18)Mo_2SiB_9合金中的硼化物
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  liquid
Quantitative Structure-Retention Relationships Applied to Reversed-Phase High-Perfromance Liquid Chromatography
      
A brief summary of the theoretical background of QSRR is followed by presentation of reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) separation theories of applications to the reported QSRR.
      
Two new trichothecenes, Roridin P and Isororidin P, and two known trichothecenes, Verrucarin A and Verrucarin J, were isolated from liquid cultures of Myrothecium roridum Tale ex Fr.
      
A sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was established for the determination of concentration of 5-FU-1-acetic acid in the gastrointestinal contents and plasma of rats.
      
This article demonstrates the use of a linear programming model to achieve an optimal allocation of liquid funds among various currencies in different countries.
      
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  liquid state
It is found that the temperature coefficient of the SAXS intensity (phonon component) for boron oxide changes at the temperature of the transition from a supercooled liquid state to a solid noncrystalline state.
      
The change in the slope is associated with the change in the temperature coefficients of the isothermal compressibility upon transition from a liquid state to a supercooled liquid state.
      
The temperatures of the glass transition and the transition from the supercooled liquid state to the noncrystalline solid state are determined from the temperature dependences of the SAXS intensity.
      
Changes in volume occurring during transition from the solid to the liquid state are estimated.
      
For the liquid state, this is unimportant; however, for the solid crystalline state, the situation changes significantly.
      
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The purpose of this series is to make a thermodynamic analysis of the Fe-C system with a minimum of assumptions and to revise the equilibrium diagram of the same system in the light of the results of this investigation. In this paper, the first of the series, activities in liquid Fe-C alloys have been evaluated up to saturation, using Richardson and Dennis' data123 on dilute solutions of carbon in liquid iron and Darken and Smith's model~([1]) for carbon dissolved in austenite with certain modifications.A parameter...

The purpose of this series is to make a thermodynamic analysis of the Fe-C system with a minimum of assumptions and to revise the equilibrium diagram of the same system in the light of the results of this investigation. In this paper, the first of the series, activities in liquid Fe-C alloys have been evaluated up to saturation, using Richardson and Dennis' data123 on dilute solutions of carbon in liquid iron and Darken and Smith's model~([1]) for carbon dissolved in austenite with certain modifications.A parameter α_c defined as logγc/N_Fe~2 with reference to graphite as the standard state is plotted against N_c for both austenite and Fe-C melt in order to facilitate the evaluation of α_(Fe) by graphical integration. Smith's data~([1]) on equilibrium between austenite and gaseous mixtures (CO_2/CO, CH_4/H_2) are re-treated to yield α_c~γ-N_c~γ curves for 800° and 1000℃ as shown in Fig. 1. On the assumption that L_c~γ the relative partial molal enthalpy of carbon in austenite, does not chan preciably with temperature, the α_c~γ-V_c~γ curve for 1153℃, the iron-graphite eutectic temperature, is obtained by extrapolation and found to lie above the graphite saturation point. This fact seems to indicate that the limit of application of Darken and Smith's model is reached somewhere around N_c~γ=0.0661 (1.50%) and a point of inflection should occur at this concentration. The above-mentioned assumption has been semi-quantitatively proved in this paper and will be discussed further in another paper of this series.In a similar manner, α_c~l-N_c~l curves for liquid Fe-C alloys are drawn through the experimental points of Richardson and Dennis on equilibrium between CO_2/CO mixed gases and dilute solutions of carbon in liquid iron at 1560° and 1660℃ as shown in Fig. 1. The curves are extended up to N_c~1=0.15 on the basis of Darken and Smith's model using 3600 cals. as the energy of interaction at 1560℃ between carbon atoms in the neighbouring interstitial sites as recommended by Richardson and Dens. Then, a suitable curve is drawn between N_c~l=0.15 and the graphite saturation point for 1560℃ to meet certain requirements, and a corresponding curve for 1660℃ is obtained by extrapolation, assuming that L_c~l, the relative partial molal enthalpy of carbon in liquid iron, does not change appreciably with temperature. Thus, α_c~l-N_c~l curves for 1560° and 1660℃ are completed from low carbon concentrations up to saturation. The activities of carbon in Fe-C melts at 1600℃ with reference to graphite as the standard state are readily obtained at different carbon concentrations by interpolation, from which the reversible electromotive forces of a concentration cell of the type Fe,C|slag, C_2~2|Fe,C(sat.) have been calculated and found to agree fairly well with the experimental values obtained by and as shown in Fig. 2. This agreement may be taken as partial confirmation of the choice of N_c~l=0.15 as the limit of application of Darken and Smith's model to liquid Fe-C alloys.From α_c~l-N_c~l curves for 160°and 1660℃, L_c~l is easily calculated to be 3930 cals., and by combining this value with certain other data, the following equation is obtained:C(gr.)=C[%]; AF°=3930-9.21 T,which differs considerably from Chipman's equation AF°=8900-12.10T given in the 1951 edition of the "Basic Open Hearth Steelmaking". It is believed that the present author's equation is more reliable than Chipman's in view of the uncertainties involved in the derivation of the latter especially regarding the evaluation of the enthalpy of solution of graphite in liquid iron.By graphical integration of the Gibbs-Duhem equation, the activities of iron in Fe-C melts with pure liquid iron as the standard state are obtained at different carbon concentrations and plotted against N_c~l in Fig. 3. The α_(Fe)~l-N_c~l curve thus obtained is independent of temperature. With the aid of Fig. 3 and certain other data, the activities of iron in an Fe-C melt and austenite both saturated with graphite at the eutectic temperature are evaluated with pure γ iron as the common standard state and found to be practically equal as required by the eutectic equilibrium. This fact renders additional support to the choice of N_c~l=0.15 as the inflection point of the α_c~l-N_c~l curves.The shape of the α_c~l-N_c~l curves is briefly discussed from a structural viewpoint.

作者在本文中综合分析了关於液态铁碳合金中碳活度测定的諸家研究结果並比较其优劣. 然后根据Richardson与Dennis用CO_2/CO平衡法的实验数据,用Darken与Smith的统计模型与最少假定,导出了液态鉄碳合金中α′_c与N′_c的关系(α′_c=logγ′_c,/(N_Fe′)~2,标准状态为石墨),并温度对此关系的影响.计算结果符合於(i)鉄液内石墨溶解度的实验数据;(ii)与用电动势法测定液态铁碳合金中碳活度的实验数据;及(iii)奥氏体、铁液、石墨共晶平衡的要求. 根据本文所导出的α′_c-N′_c曲綫,作者算得石墨在鉄液内的溶解热为3930卡;然后依此及其他必需数据,导出下列关系:C(石墨)=C[%],△F°=3930-9.21T. 最后作者从液态铁碳合金结构的观点讨论了图1中α′_c-N′_c曲綫的形状.

This is the first of a series of papers with a view to evaluation activities inliquid blast-furnace-type slags.The purpose of this paper is to present new results of calculation for activities of CaO and SiO_2 in liquid CaO-SiO_2,CaO-SiO_2-Al_2O_3 and CaO-MgO-SiO_2-Al_2O_3 systems from existing chemical and electrochemi-caldata with certain assumptions The activities of CaO in the above-mentionedsystems with reference to solid CaO as the standard state are plotted against(%CaO)/(%SiO_2).From a comparison of...

This is the first of a series of papers with a view to evaluation activities inliquid blast-furnace-type slags.The purpose of this paper is to present new results of calculation for activities of CaO and SiO_2 in liquid CaO-SiO_2,CaO-SiO_2-Al_2O_3 and CaO-MgO-SiO_2-Al_2O_3 systems from existing chemical and electrochemi-caldata with certain assumptions The activities of CaO in the above-mentionedsystems with reference to solid CaO as the standard state are plotted against(%CaO)/(%SiO_2).From a comparison of these ~αCaO-(%CaO)/(%SiO_2)curves,a new expression for basicity has been proposed instead of the simple(%CaO)/(%SiO_2)ratio.The activities of CaO in the various systems concerned becomeapproximately equal at the same basicity when the latter is calculated accordingto the new formula.Alumina shows amphoteric behaviour in the new basicityformula in agreement with the general pattern of slag constitution.

在本文中,作者综合分析了关于CaO—SiO_2、CaO—SiO_2—Al_2O_3及CaO—MgO—SiO_2—Al_2O_3系统熔渣中α_(SiO_2)及α_(CaO)的测定结果,并加以比较。关于CaO—SiO_2二元系,作者综合了Fulton与Chipman,张禄经与Derge及坂上六郎的实验数据,导出了1600℃时液态渣在整个浓度范围内的α_(SiO_2)及α_(CaO),分别用β鳞石英及固态CaO为标准状态。根据这样算出的α_(SiO_2)及α_(CaO)以及坂上的CaO侧电动势数据,作者导出了一个经验公式,可以用来从已知的电动势数据与α_(SiO_2)计算α_(CaO)。将这个公式应用于CaO—SiO_2—Al_2O_3三元系,算出了三元系熔渣内当Al_2O_3=10、20%时的α_(CaO)。然后将二元系和三元系中的α_(CaO)加以比较,导出了一个新的碱度计算公式。在此式中A1_2O_3显示双性,当碱度较高时它属于酸性,因此可以分子比例与SiO_2相加;反之,当碱度较低时它属于碱性,因此须从SiO_2中扣去。如将MgO以重量百分率与CaO相加,这个碱度公式也可以适用于四元系。由于新的...

在本文中,作者综合分析了关于CaO—SiO_2、CaO—SiO_2—Al_2O_3及CaO—MgO—SiO_2—Al_2O_3系统熔渣中α_(SiO_2)及α_(CaO)的测定结果,并加以比较。关于CaO—SiO_2二元系,作者综合了Fulton与Chipman,张禄经与Derge及坂上六郎的实验数据,导出了1600℃时液态渣在整个浓度范围内的α_(SiO_2)及α_(CaO),分别用β鳞石英及固态CaO为标准状态。根据这样算出的α_(SiO_2)及α_(CaO)以及坂上的CaO侧电动势数据,作者导出了一个经验公式,可以用来从已知的电动势数据与α_(SiO_2)计算α_(CaO)。将这个公式应用于CaO—SiO_2—Al_2O_3三元系,算出了三元系熔渣内当Al_2O_3=10、20%时的α_(CaO)。然后将二元系和三元系中的α_(CaO)加以比较,导出了一个新的碱度计算公式。在此式中A1_2O_3显示双性,当碱度较高时它属于酸性,因此可以分子比例与SiO_2相加;反之,当碱度较低时它属于碱性,因此须从SiO_2中扣去。如将MgO以重量百分率与CaO相加,这个碱度公式也可以适用于四元系。由于新的碱度公式所根据的实验数据并不充分,所以它的能否适用须视应用结果如何而定。Taylor与Stobo由脱硫平衡数据计算了三个熔渣内的α_(CaO),与作者的计算结果不能符合。本文初步分析了造成这个差异的原因。因为这个差异的存在,本文所计算的α_(CaO)只能认为相对的数值,同时图2的α_(SiO_2)曲线也有待将来研究复证或修正。

In the previous paper,activities in liquid Fe-C alloys have been evaluatedfrom low carbon concentrations up to saturation with reference to pure liquidiron and solid graphite respectively as the standard states using Richardson andDennis' data on dilute solutions of carbon in liquid iron as the chief basis of cal-culation.Moreover,Smith's data on equilibrium between austenite and gaseousmixtures(CO_2/CO,CH_4/H_2)have been retreated to yield activities in austenitewith reference to pure γ iron and graphite respectively...

In the previous paper,activities in liquid Fe-C alloys have been evaluatedfrom low carbon concentrations up to saturation with reference to pure liquidiron and solid graphite respectively as the standard states using Richardson andDennis' data on dilute solutions of carbon in liquid iron as the chief basis of cal-culation.Moreover,Smith's data on equilibrium between austenite and gaseousmixtures(CO_2/CO,CH_4/H_2)have been retreated to yield activities in austenitewith reference to pure γ iron and graphite respectively as the standard states.The purpose of the present paper is to make a thermodynamic analysis of theiron-graphite equilibrium diagram on the basis of these activity data and certainother data including the free energy of cementite,the derivation of which will bediscussed in another paper of this series.Direct experimental data on the solubility of graphite in ferrite are not avai-lable.Darken and Gurry as well as Hillert calculated the solubility of graphitein ferrite from that of cementite in ferrite determined by a number of investi-gators and the free energy of cementite calculated by Darken and Smith.In the present paper,the solubility of graphite in ferrite has been recalculatedusing the free energy of cementite calculated by the author and the results arecompared with the values reported in the literature.Wells' data on iron-graphite eutectoid equilibrium have been found to beessentially compatible with thermodynamic requirements.The agreement betweenthe experimental and the calculated values can,however,be still improved if 735°instead of 738° is chosen as the eutectoid temperature.Regarding the iron-graphite eutectic,the condition for equilibrium demandsthat the activities of iron in austenite and an iron-carbon melt both saturatedwith graphite at the eutectic temperature should be equal if the same standard state is used.It has been found in the present paper that this condition can bebetter fulfilled if 10.83 cal./g.atom/deg.is chosen as the heat capacity of liquidiron and 3650 cal./g.atom as the heat of fusion of iron.From an analysis of the δ iron-austenite-liquid peritectic equilibrium,it hasbeen found that a peritectic temperature of 1495° and a liquid phase of 0.58%Care better than 1493° and 0.52%C reported by Adcock as well as 1499° and0.53%C calculated by Darken and Gurry.Finally,the liquidus and solidus curves of the austenite-liquid field have beencalculated,the latter being found to concave up slightly in contradiction withthe conventional Fe-C equilibrium diagram.

根据Smith测定及经作者修正的奥氏体内的活度及作者计算的液态铁碳合金内的活度与碳化铁的热力学函数以及其他必需的关于铁碳稳定平衡的实验及计算数据,作者对铁碳相图的稳定平衡部分作了较全面的分析。作者的计算包括:(i)石墨在铁素体內的溶解度;(ii)铁素体、奥氏体、石墨共析平衡;(iii)奥氏体、铁液、石墨共晶平衡;(iv)δ铁、奥氏体、铁液包晶平衡;(v)奥氏体、铁液二相区域的液相线及固相接。计算结果示于图3,此图与现行铁碳相图颇有不同之处。

 
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