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液态铁
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  liquid iron
     THE SOLUBILITY OF HYDROGEN IN LIQUID IRON, NICKEL, IRON-COPPER AND IRON-COPPER-NICKEL ALLOYS
     氢在液态铁、镍、铁-铜及铁-铜-镍合金中溶解度
短句来源
     Because the rare earth Ce and La have active chemistry characteristics and can decrease the surface tension force of the liquid iron , the addition of Fe-RE can increase the density and bending strength of steel bonded TiC by means of deoxidization and desulfurization, changing the distribution and existing state of impurity, improving liquid retouching properties and refining grain.
     由于稀土Ce和La活泼的化学性质和可以减小液态铁表面张力的性质,Fe-RE稀土中间合金在TiC钢结硬质合金中可以起到脱氧、脱硫、改善杂质分布及存在状态、改善液相流动性与润湿性、细化晶粒的作用,最终有效减小孔隙度而获得高密度和较高抗弯强度的TiC钢结硬质合金材料。
短句来源
     Based on high pressure and high temperature experimental data, this mineral assemblage was formed in D″ layer between the outer core and the lower mantle, being a product of chemical reaction between liquid iron of the outer core and magnesian silicate pe rovskite (MgSiO 3) of the lower mantle.
     根据超高压 高温实验 ,该组合应形成于地球外核与下地幔之间的D″层 ,是地球外核的液态铁与镁硅酸盐钙钛矿 (MgSiO3 )相互化学反应的产物。
短句来源
     Following decompression and ascent of the droplets, wustite (or NiAs structure) was produced by the chemical reaction between the liquid iron and liquid oxygen.
     随着乳滴状自然铁球粒向上运移,在降压条件下液态铁和氧元素发生化学反应生成方铁矿(包括NI AS结构)。
短句来源
  “液态铁”译为未确定词的双语例句
     A THERMODYNAMIC STUDY OF THE Fe-C SYSTEM——I. THERMODYNAMICS OF LIQUID Fe-C ALLOYS
     铁碳系统的热力学研究——Ⅰ.液态铁碳合金的热力学
短句来源
     KINETIC STUDY ON THE REDUCTION OF W■STITE BY CO GAS
     CO还原液态铁氧化物的动力学研究
短句来源
     MOLECULAR DYNAMICS STUDY OF BULK AND SHEAR VISCOSITY OF LIQUID IRON IN THE EARTH'S OUTER CORE:A CRITICAL REVIEW
     外核液态铁粘滞度的分子动力学研究
短句来源
     The overall oxidation process proceeds in two steps, i. e. the simultaneous direct oxidation of both iron and manganese by oxygen gas at the gas-metal interface zone followed by the subsequent reaction between the slag formed in the first step and the metal at the slag-metal interface zone, with the iron oxide in the slag reduced by Mn in the metal.
     实验结果表明,氧气与液态铁锰作用的全过程由以下两个步骤组成:在氧气-金属熔体直接接触界面上,铁、锰同时氧化; 接着,直接氧化生成的渣在渣-金属熔体界面续继反应,渣中氧化铁被金属中的锰还原。
短句来源
     Within this lowermost mantle layer, the partial melting of material of lower mantle and chemical reaction of core mantle material can occur.
     在地幔底层可能发生地幔物质(包括俯冲板块物质在内)的部分熔融作用,也可能存在外核液态铁与地幔硅酸盐的化学反应。
短句来源
  相似匹配句对
     Characteristic of Temperature-induced Change on the Microstructure of Liquid Pure Iron
     液态微观结构的温度变化特性
短句来源
     KINETIC STUDY ON THE REDUCTION OF W■STITE BY CO GAS
     CO还原液态氧化物的动力学研究
短句来源
     Preparation and application of new liquid photoresist
     新型液态光致抗蚀剂
短句来源
     Stimulated Raman scattering in liquid air
     液态空气的受激喇曼散射
短句来源
     Fe.Mo-Cofactor
     钼辅因子
短句来源
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  liquid iron
The equations of state are plotted for solid and liquid iron, and it is shown that the phase equilibrium, with due regard for the strength, shifts towards higher temperatures.
      
The influence of the icosahedral percolation transition in supercooled liquid iron on the diffusion mobility of atoms
      
Investigation of the crystallization of liquid iron under pressure: Extrapolation of the melt viscosity into the megabar range
      
Embedded atom model for liquid metals: Liquid iron
      
This method was applied to liquid iron at temperatures and pressures up to 5000 K and 360 GPa.
      
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  molten iron
Interaction of Molten Iron with Ceramics Based on Iron and Aluminum Oxides
      
The interaction of molten iron with a ceramic material based on iron and aluminum oxides taken in equimolar ratio is investigated experimentally.
      
The interaction begins with thermal decomposition of hematite, oxidation of boundary layers of molten iron to wüstite, and the reaction of wüustite with aluminum oxide with the formation of hercynite FeAl2O4 (in a surface layer of the melt).
      
The rate of iron oxidation with hematite is relatively low, which is explained by the electrochemical processes at the molten iron-hematite melt interface.
      
Interaction of a ceramic material based on hematite with molten iron produced by an aluminothermic reaction
      
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The purpose of this series is to make a thermodynamic analysis of the Fe-C system with a minimum of assumptions and to revise the equilibrium diagram of the same system in the light of the results of this investigation. In this paper, the first of the series, activities in liquid Fe-C alloys have been evaluated up to saturation, using Richardson and Dennis' data123 on dilute solutions of carbon in liquid iron and Darken and Smith's model~([1]) for carbon dissolved in austenite with certain modifications.A parameter...

The purpose of this series is to make a thermodynamic analysis of the Fe-C system with a minimum of assumptions and to revise the equilibrium diagram of the same system in the light of the results of this investigation. In this paper, the first of the series, activities in liquid Fe-C alloys have been evaluated up to saturation, using Richardson and Dennis' data123 on dilute solutions of carbon in liquid iron and Darken and Smith's model~([1]) for carbon dissolved in austenite with certain modifications.A parameter α_c defined as logγc/N_Fe~2 with reference to graphite as the standard state is plotted against N_c for both austenite and Fe-C melt in order to facilitate the evaluation of α_(Fe) by graphical integration. Smith's data~([1]) on equilibrium between austenite and gaseous mixtures (CO_2/CO, CH_4/H_2) are re-treated to yield α_c~γ-N_c~γ curves for 800° and 1000℃ as shown in Fig. 1. On the assumption that L_c~γ the relative partial molal enthalpy of carbon in austenite, does not chan preciably with temperature, the α_c~γ-V_c~γ curve for 1153℃, the iron-graphite eutectic temperature, is obtained by extrapolation and found to lie above the graphite saturation point. This fact seems to indicate that the limit of application of Darken and Smith's model is reached somewhere around N_c~γ=0.0661 (1.50%) and a point of inflection should occur at this concentration. The above-mentioned assumption has been semi-quantitatively proved in this paper and will be discussed further in another paper of this series.In a similar manner, α_c~l-N_c~l curves for liquid Fe-C alloys are drawn through the experimental points of Richardson and Dennis on equilibrium between CO_2/CO mixed gases and dilute solutions of carbon in liquid iron at 1560° and 1660℃ as shown in Fig. 1. The curves are extended up to N_c~1=0.15 on the basis of Darken and Smith's model using 3600 cals. as the energy of interaction at 1560℃ between carbon atoms in the neighbouring interstitial sites as recommended by Richardson and Dens. Then, a suitable curve is drawn between N_c~l=0.15 and the graphite saturation point for 1560℃ to meet certain requirements, and a corresponding curve for 1660℃ is obtained by extrapolation, assuming that L_c~l, the relative partial molal enthalpy of carbon in liquid iron, does not change appreciably with temperature. Thus, α_c~l-N_c~l curves for 1560° and 1660℃ are completed from low carbon concentrations up to saturation. The activities of carbon in Fe-C melts at 1600℃ with reference to graphite as the standard state are readily obtained at different carbon concentrations by interpolation, from which the reversible electromotive forces of a concentration cell of the type Fe,C|slag, C_2~2|Fe,C(sat.) have been calculated and found to agree fairly well with the experimental values obtained by and as shown in Fig. 2. This agreement may be taken as partial confirmation of the choice of N_c~l=0.15 as the limit of application of Darken and Smith's model to liquid Fe-C alloys.From α_c~l-N_c~l curves for 160°and 1660℃, L_c~l is easily calculated to be 3930 cals., and by combining this value with certain other data, the following equation is obtained:C(gr.)=C[%]; AF°=3930-9.21 T,which differs considerably from Chipman's equation AF°=8900-12.10T given in the 1951 edition of the "Basic Open Hearth Steelmaking". It is believed that the present author's equation is more reliable than Chipman's in view of the uncertainties involved in the derivation of the latter especially regarding the evaluation of the enthalpy of solution of graphite in liquid iron.By graphical integration of the Gibbs-Duhem equation, the activities of iron in Fe-C melts with pure liquid iron as the standard state are obtained at different carbon concentrations and plotted against N_c~l in Fig. 3. The α_(Fe)~l-N_c~l curve thus obtained is independent of temperature. With the aid of Fig. 3 and certain other data, the activities of iron in an Fe-C melt and austenite both saturated with graphite at the eutectic temperature are evaluated with pure γ iron as the common standard state and found to be practically equal as required by the eutectic equilibrium. This fact renders additional support to the choice of N_c~l=0.15 as the inflection point of the α_c~l-N_c~l curves.The shape of the α_c~l-N_c~l curves is briefly discussed from a structural viewpoint.

作者在本文中综合分析了关於液态铁碳合金中碳活度测定的諸家研究结果並比较其优劣. 然后根据Richardson与Dennis用CO_2/CO平衡法的实验数据,用Darken与Smith的统计模型与最少假定,导出了液态鉄碳合金中α′_c与N′_c的关系(α′_c=logγ′_c,/(N_Fe′)~2,标准状态为石墨),并温度对此关系的影响.计算结果符合於(i)鉄液内石墨溶解度的实验数据;(ii)与用电动势法测定液态铁碳合金中碳活度的实验数据;及(iii)奥氏体、铁液、石墨共晶平衡的要求. 根据本文所导出的α′_c-N′_c曲綫,作者算得石墨在鉄液内的溶解热为3930卡;然后依此及其他必需数据,导出下列关系:C(石墨)=C[%],△F°=3930-9.21T. 最后作者从液态铁碳合金结构的观点讨论了图1中α′_c-N′_c曲綫的形状.

In the previous paper,activities in liquid Fe-C alloys have been evaluatedfrom low carbon concentrations up to saturation with reference to pure liquidiron and solid graphite respectively as the standard states using Richardson andDennis' data on dilute solutions of carbon in liquid iron as the chief basis of cal-culation.Moreover,Smith's data on equilibrium between austenite and gaseousmixtures(CO_2/CO,CH_4/H_2)have been retreated to yield activities in austenitewith reference to pure γ iron and graphite respectively...

In the previous paper,activities in liquid Fe-C alloys have been evaluatedfrom low carbon concentrations up to saturation with reference to pure liquidiron and solid graphite respectively as the standard states using Richardson andDennis' data on dilute solutions of carbon in liquid iron as the chief basis of cal-culation.Moreover,Smith's data on equilibrium between austenite and gaseousmixtures(CO_2/CO,CH_4/H_2)have been retreated to yield activities in austenitewith reference to pure γ iron and graphite respectively as the standard states.The purpose of the present paper is to make a thermodynamic analysis of theiron-graphite equilibrium diagram on the basis of these activity data and certainother data including the free energy of cementite,the derivation of which will bediscussed in another paper of this series.Direct experimental data on the solubility of graphite in ferrite are not avai-lable.Darken and Gurry as well as Hillert calculated the solubility of graphitein ferrite from that of cementite in ferrite determined by a number of investi-gators and the free energy of cementite calculated by Darken and Smith.In the present paper,the solubility of graphite in ferrite has been recalculatedusing the free energy of cementite calculated by the author and the results arecompared with the values reported in the literature.Wells' data on iron-graphite eutectoid equilibrium have been found to beessentially compatible with thermodynamic requirements.The agreement betweenthe experimental and the calculated values can,however,be still improved if 735°instead of 738° is chosen as the eutectoid temperature.Regarding the iron-graphite eutectic,the condition for equilibrium demandsthat the activities of iron in austenite and an iron-carbon melt both saturatedwith graphite at the eutectic temperature should be equal if the same standard state is used.It has been found in the present paper that this condition can bebetter fulfilled if 10.83 cal./g.atom/deg.is chosen as the heat capacity of liquidiron and 3650 cal./g.atom as the heat of fusion of iron.From an analysis of the δ iron-austenite-liquid peritectic equilibrium,it hasbeen found that a peritectic temperature of 1495° and a liquid phase of 0.58%Care better than 1493° and 0.52%C reported by Adcock as well as 1499° and0.53%C calculated by Darken and Gurry.Finally,the liquidus and solidus curves of the austenite-liquid field have beencalculated,the latter being found to concave up slightly in contradiction withthe conventional Fe-C equilibrium diagram.

根据Smith测定及经作者修正的奥氏体内的活度及作者计算的液态铁碳合金内的活度与碳化铁的热力学函数以及其他必需的关于铁碳稳定平衡的实验及计算数据,作者对铁碳相图的稳定平衡部分作了较全面的分析。作者的计算包括:(i)石墨在铁素体內的溶解度;(ii)铁素体、奥氏体、石墨共析平衡;(iii)奥氏体、铁液、石墨共晶平衡;(iv)δ铁、奥氏体、铁液包晶平衡;(v)奥氏体、铁液二相区域的液相线及固相接。计算结果示于图3,此图与现行铁碳相图颇有不同之处。

Concluding this series on thermodynamic study of the Fe-C system,the presentpaper deals with an analysis of the metastable iron-cementite equilibrium on thebasis of the activity data derived previously by the author and the free energy ofcementite recalculated by the author in this paper.It has not been possible before to calculate the cementite eutectic temperaturedue to lack of data on activities in the liquid iron-carbon system.With the aid of the results of calculation in a previous paper,this temperature...

Concluding this series on thermodynamic study of the Fe-C system,the presentpaper deals with an analysis of the metastable iron-cementite equilibrium on thebasis of the activity data derived previously by the author and the free energy ofcementite recalculated by the author in this paper.It has not been possible before to calculate the cementite eutectic temperaturedue to lack of data on activities in the liquid iron-carbon system.With the aid of the results of calculation in a previous paper,this temperature has been found tobe 1148°,or 5° below the graphite eutectic temperature.The cementite eutectoidtemperature 723°,determined by Mehl and Wells,is found to be consistent withthermodynamic requirements.Darken and Gurry chose 1146° as the cementite eutectic temperature andwith this value and certain other data calculated the free energy of cementite as afunction of temperature.On the basis of the more rigorously calculated cementiteeutectic temperature 1148° and the carefully determined cementite eutectoid tempe-rature 723° and certain other data,the free energy of cementite has been recal-culated by the author and found to be considerably different from Darken andGurry's results.The solubilities of cementite in austenite and in liquid iron respectively arethen calculated as functions of temperature.It should be pointed out,however,thatthe solubility of cementite in liquid iron thus calculated is only a first approximationand will certainly be revised in the future when more data on the free energy ofcementite at higher temperatures become available.A complete Fe-C equilibrium diagram including both stable and metastableequilibria has been constructed in the light of the results of this and a previouspaper.It is easily seen that certain important differences exist between the conven-tional and the revised diagrams.

在本文中,作者首先计算了铁、碳化铁的共晶平衡,得出共晶温度为1148°;这在以前因为缺乏液态铁碳合金内的活度数据是不可能计算的。其次作者综合分析了前人数据,主要根据1148°的介稳共晶温度及723°的介稳共析温度,算出碳化铁的热力学函数。根据这样算出的碳化铁热力学函数及有关热力学数据,作者(i)复核了碳化铁的共析温度及共析点成分;(ii)计算了碳化铁在奥氏体内的溶解度;(iii)计算了碳化铁在铁液内的溶解度及碳化铁液相线与石墨液相线的相交温度。最后,根据本文及稳定平衡部分的计算结果,作者将现行铁碳相图加以修正,俾合于热力学的要求。但关于碳化铁在铁液内溶解度的计算仅属于初步近似性质,有待将来研究。

 
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