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  before
     The Study of Writing Media and Social Development in Europe Before the 18~(th) Century
     18世纪以前欧洲文字传媒与社会发展研究
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     DYNAMIC STUDY ON THE PRODUCTIVE CAPABILITY OF TRANSFORMATION STAGES BEFORE AVAILABLE PRODUCTIVE CAPABILITY(P_4) IN ALPINE STEPPE GRASSLAND
     高山草原草地有效生产能力(P_4)以前诸转化阶生产能力动态的研究
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     THE FORMATION OF THE RENORMALIZATION PROGRAMME(DEVELOPMENT BEFORE 1949), NOTES FOR A HISTORY OF QUANTUM FIELD THEORY
     量子场论中重整化纲领的形成(1949年以前的发展)
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     The Secular Variation of the Earth's Rotation Obtained from 171 Records of Lunar Occultation before 600 A. D. in China
     由南北朝以前171个月掩星记录所得到的地球自转长期变化
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     Evolution and Development of Learned Journal of the Northwest University Before China's Liberation in 1949
     解放以前西北大学学术期刊的演变和发展
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  previous
     On the basis of the Franck-Condon factor consideration, the IE of (10.43±0.02) eV determined in the previous single-photon ionization experiment most likely corresponds to the ionization threshold for the H_2CCC→H_2CCC~+(~2A_1, C_(2v)) transition.
     在考虑Frank-Condon因子基础上,以前单光子电离实验所测定的(10.43±0.02)eV电离能最可能对应于H_2CCC→H_2CCC+(~2A_1,C_(2v))跃迁的电离阈值。
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     From the reflection spectrum of PbMo6S8 the charge transfer from Mo6S8 cluster to Pb atom is calculated to be 1.18 instead of 2 electrons being transferred from Pb atom to Mo6S8 cluster as generally recognized in previous literatures.
     结合PbMo_6S_8的反射光谱,求得Mo_6S_8原子簇至Pb的电子转移数为1.18,和以前一般文献上认为的两个电子从Pb转移至Mo_6S_8不同。
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     Compared with the previous ways of design,the implementation and the importance of virtual design in the development of modern product have been discussed.
     通过与以前设计方式的比较,更深一步探讨了虚拟设计如何在现代产品开发中实现,提出了虚拟设计在现代产品开发中的重要作用;
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     Results show that the positive rate of three tests are 56. 3% ,21. 9% and 43. 8% seperately before operation, which is approximate to our previous random study on vasectomized men(52. 1%,23. 9% and 27. 4%).
     其结果为切除术前3项试验的阳性率各为56.3%、21.9%和43.8%,与我们以前所作随机调查绝育者的结果相近(52.1%、23.9%和27.4%).
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     The three other systems found by previous investigators(Za=0.954,1.7605,1.9637denoted B、E and H respectively)are shown to have been misidentified.
     表明以前研究者发现的其他三个红移系统(系统 B,红移0.954;系统 E,红移1.7605;系统 H,红移1.8637)都是误认。
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  ago
     U-Ra equilibrium coefficients of rocks indicate that there is obvious U-Ra disequilibrium phenomenon in volcanic rocks,and the time when granites provided uranium source occurred 16000 a ago.
     岩石的U-Ra平衡系数研究表明,火山岩类存在明显的U-Ra不平衡现象,而花岗岩提供成矿铀源应发生在16000a以前
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     Fetal cells were identified in maternal blood a century ago.
     一个多世纪以前就已经发现孕妇外周血中存在胎儿细胞。
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     The size of most EG in the tropical montane rain forest range from 30m 2 through 500m 2, averaged about 160m 2. And the size of most CG in the forest range from 15m 2 through 200m 2, averaged about 80m 2. Most gaps were formed 40 years ago, and most of which aged 10~30a.
     海南热带山地雨林中EG的大小一般变化在30~500m2左右,平均约为160m2,大多数CG的大小一般都变化在15~200m2左右,平均约为80m2。 大多数的林隙是在40a以前形成的,而10~30a之前形成的林隙最多。
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     165 cases of complex partial epilepsy was reported, 91 cases (55. l%)fallen sick ago 20 years old.
     165例复杂部分性癫痫中20岁以前发病者91例,占55.15%。
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     (2) three types of poliovirus were almost simultaneously evoluted from a common ancestor virus 1000-2000 years ago;
     (2)三个型病毒是由一个共同祖先病毒在距今约1—2千年以前几乎同时分歧进化而来;
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  ever before
     ResultsThe age for first sex intercourse was younger than ever before 5.1% of adolescent under 13 has sexual experience,and 84.6% percent of the study subjects were under 16 when they had sex.
     结果青少年学员中总体首次性生活年龄提前,13岁以下者占5.1%,16岁以前84.6%的人都有性生活史;
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     Web Services allow applications to be integrated more rapidly, easily and less expensively than ever before.
     Web Services使应用程序的集成比以前更快、更容易而且更廉价。
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     Web Services and CORBA are the two hot spots in distributed application research. Web Services are a technology for deploying and providing access to business functions over the Web and Web Services allow applications to be integrated more rapidly, easily and less expensively than ever before, CORBA provides an environment for building clients and servers, which are transparent to programmers.
     Web Services和CORBA都是分布式应用领域内讨论的热点问题,Web Services是部署并提供通过Web访问业务功能的技术,它使应用程序的集成比以前更快、更容易而且成本更低,CORBA提供了在异构平台上构造对程序开发人员透明的分布式环境。
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     Meanwhile, Web Services is the one of hot spots in distributed application research. It has the most superiority than other technology on the cross—Internet and platform, Web Services' integration is based on service layer and it make the applications to be integrated more rapidly, easily and less expensively than ever before.
     与此同时,Web Services技术是当前分布式应用领域内讨论的热点问题,它在跨Internet,跨平台等方面有着其它技术不可比拟的优越性,Web Services的应用集成是一种基于服务层的集成,它使应用程序的集成比以前更快,更容易,而且成本更低。
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     FiO network is very easy to be integrated for hardware because of the simple structure of Omega network,and its capability for multicast is better than other networks proposed ever before so that it has preferable application value and development potential.
     由于Omega网本身的构造简单,所以该网络有利于硬件集成,同时在处理多播能力上较以前的网络模型也有显著提高,所以该网络有较好的实用价值和发展潜力.
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  before
The derivation of our algorithm depends on certain properties of joint analyticity (with respect to spatial variables and perturbations) which had not been established before this work.
      
If the system is replaced before failure, a smaller cost is incurred.
      
In this paper, a pricing problem of European call options is considered, where the underlying stock generates dividends d, at some fixed future dates T, before the expiration date 7'.
      
Each Ji consists of two tasks Ai and Bi, and task Ai must be completed before task Bi can start.
      
In addition, the paper will present the recursive algorithm for the joint distribution of the surplus immediately before ruin and the deficit at ruin.
      
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  previous
The fiberization of affine systems via dual Gramian techniques, which was developed in previous papers of the authors, is applied here for the study of affine frames that have an affine dual system.
      
Our proofs proceed in the time domain and allow us to represent each solution regardless of the spectral radius of P(0):=2-s∑cα, which has been a difficulty in previous investigations of this nature.
      
Another generalization is obtained in the context of representations of Jordan algebras, in the spirit of Herz's previous work on matrix spaces.
      
This has significant advantages over the previous work.
      
The article extends upon previous work by Temlyakov, Konyagin, and Wojtaszczyk on comparing the error of certain greedy algorithms with that of best m-term approximation with respect to a general biorthogonal system in a Banach space X.
      
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  ago
Guanidine-like compounds have been investigated since the first observations of their therapeutic potential some 30 years ago in fields of cancer and virology.
      
In the meadow calcareous chernozem polluted 12 years ago, desalinization processes increased alkalinization and thus further degraded the soil.
      
Although mammalian deoxyribonucleases were discovered more than 60 years ago, interest in these enzymes is not weakening.
      
Processes proceeding during the mechanical activation of sphene (CaTiSiO5) from Khibiny deposit in a mechanical agate mortar and an AGO-3 planetary mill are studied.
      
Several years ago these solutions were considered as a method of expanding our ideas of the qualitative effect of various factors on the MHD flow in the channel of a MHD device.
      
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  ever before
With rapidly depleting biodiversity in the developing tropic regions, there is a greater utilization today than ever before of the value of respecting the "Sacred" as a tool towards better conservation of natural resources.
      
During the seventeenth century Chinese local elites sponsored charitable activities more visibly and vocally than ever before.
      
These steps are now more feasible and more clearly desirable than ever before.
      
Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis is detected more commonly than ever before and affects more than 85% of patients referred for revascularization.
      
As a result, patients are often being treated longer and with more complex medical regimens than ever before, increasing the risk for drug interactions and toxicities.
      
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  其他


Measurement of the intensity of total scattering of x-rays by a number of polyatomic gases was made for scattering angles between 15° and 130 ° using an ionization method of recording the scattered intensity. Balanced filters of ZrO2, and SrO were used to separate the MoKa rays and Soller slits were placed in front of the ionization chamber to obtain a definite scattering angle. The gases studied are CL2, CO2, N2O, H2S, CC14 and CHCl3. In each case the absolute values of the scattered intensity were determined...

Measurement of the intensity of total scattering of x-rays by a number of polyatomic gases was made for scattering angles between 15° and 130 ° using an ionization method of recording the scattered intensity. Balanced filters of ZrO2, and SrO were used to separate the MoKa rays and Soller slits were placed in front of the ionization chamber to obtain a definite scattering angle. The gases studied are CL2, CO2, N2O, H2S, CC14 and CHCl3. In each case the absolute values of the scattered intensity were determined by comparison with the scattering from oxygen, the results of Wollan for the latter gas being taken as correct. The experimental results are actually compared with Woo's theory of the scattering of x-rays by polyatomic gases and the agreement seems to be satisfactory.

吴有训氏最近对于多原子气体散射线之理论,曾作详尽的探讨。吴氏得到一个公式,表示由多原子气体所散射之强度,其中一部为相干的散射,另一部为不相干的散射。 以前关于多原子气体散射X-线之实验,为数甚少,且为定性的结果。最近美人Wollan,对于由O_2及N_2(双原子气体)所散射钼的K_3α线之强度,曾作绝对的度量。Wollan的结果,与吴有训氏的理论,甚属相符。本篇目的,在测定由 Cl_2,CO_2,N_2O,H_2S,CCl_4及 CHCl六种气体所散射X-线之强度,每一实验,均与由0_2者互相比较,根据Wollan的结果,每种气体所散射之绝对强度,皆一一量得。所用之入射X-线为钼之Kα线,系藉Ross的平衡过滤法分出。强度之测量,系用一游离方法。散射角度的范围,自15度至130度。每种气体的实验结果,均与吴氏的理论,互相比较,证明理论与实验,甚属相符。在计算时,原子的“构造因数”,系由Hartree的方法算得,一分子中两原子的相隔距离,则由带光谱的结果推得。

1. All kinds of colonies of Volvox africanus were found in great abundance during the first two weeks of May, 1933, from a pond in Nanking.2. The smallest colony is much smaller than that recorded from Africa and the Philippine Islands.3. The somatic cells are not connected by protoplasmic filaments in adult colonies.4. Asexual colony usually contains from two to six daughters symmetrically arranged in pairs according to size on opposite sides of the polar axis.5. Sexual colonies of different kinds are developed...

1. All kinds of colonies of Volvox africanus were found in great abundance during the first two weeks of May, 1933, from a pond in Nanking.2. The smallest colony is much smaller than that recorded from Africa and the Philippine Islands.3. The somatic cells are not connected by protoplasmic filaments in adult colonies.4. Asexual colony usually contains from two to six daughters symmetrically arranged in pairs according to size on opposite sides of the polar axis.5. Sexual colonies of different kinds are developed from the asexual mother either singly or in combination with other kinds and asexual daughters.6. Parthenogonidia develope very early in young embryos long before the latter become matured and escaped from the mother colony. 7. During the early development of parthenogonidia, at least from first to fifth or sixth divisions, no growth of the whole embryo takes the place while the number of cells increases.8. Spermatogonia attain fully-grown size and begin to divide before the time of the birth of the colony.9. The development of spermatogonium consists of seven successive divisions in forming a bundle or platelet of one hundred and twenty eight spermatozoa or microgametes.10. The number of ovaries in a female colony varies from twelve to fourty six. Generally, the larger the colony, the more the ovaries developed.11. Risexual colonies contain only two or three spermatogonia in addition to fourteen to twenty seven ovaries.12. In general, specimens recorded in Nanking are identical to those from the tropical regions such as Africa and the Philippine Islands.

關於菲洲團走子之分佈,按記載所及。僅限於菲洲,菲列濱,南印度等熱带區域。今在南京發現,於地理分佈上實為一新記錄。此種團走子在羣體成熟之後,其體質细胞間,並無原生質線交相聯絡。無性羣體每含有二至六大小不同成對均置之無性幼羣體。幼羣體在脫離母體以前,往往含有第二代幼體。各種有性羣體,亦自無性母羣體中發達而成。雄性羣體,皆为橢圓形,而較其他羣體為小。雌性羣體中之卵或大配子约有十二至四十六。雙性羣體只含有二或三精原细胞,及十五至二十七卵或大配子。孤性生殖细胞在幼羣體内即發生。當最初五或六次分裂時,细胞雖增加,而幼胎並不長大。精原细胞经七次連續之均等分裂,而成一束一百二十八精子或小配子。

An attempt to observe the spectrum of doubly excited helium by excitation by electron impact, with energies between 500-600 electron volts, is made without success. This and other failures are discussed by considering of the life times of the doubly excited states. An approximate calculation gives for 2s3s3S a life time of the order 10-15 sec, corresponding to a natural width of the level of the order 1000 cm-1. While this accounts for the absence of a line spectrum of doubly excited helium, it renders the former...

An attempt to observe the spectrum of doubly excited helium by excitation by electron impact, with energies between 500-600 electron volts, is made without success. This and other failures are discussed by considering of the life times of the doubly excited states. An approximate calculation gives for 2s3s3S a life time of the order 10-15 sec, corresponding to a natural width of the level of the order 1000 cm-1. While this accounts for the absence of a line spectrum of doubly excited helium, it renders the former suggestion that the corona lines may be due to it untenable.

(1)日晕光谱线之来源,至今为未决定之问题。Goudsmit与吴大猷曾假设诸谱线乃由氦气双激起原子所生。过去有人企图用实验方法得到双激起氦原子之光谱,未能成功。但有数种实验室内现象,均有人用此假设以解释之。故作者希望在适当情形下得到双激起氦原子之光谱。 (2)由理论上知用电子撞击法造成双激起之可能性甚小,但此可能性之最大值在电子能为300至600electron volts时故作者企图在人为的此种情形下观察双激起氦原子光谱,但结果未能发现。 (3)此种实验结果可从理论方面予以解释。作者由双激起2s3s~3S状态之计算,知其谱线之宽约为1000cm~(-1),故实验时不能观察因此以前关於日晕光谱之解释,亦成疑问。

 
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