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视网膜     
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  retinal
    Synaptic Plasticity and Neural Circuitry in the Retinal Outer Plexiform Layer: Experiments and Models
    视网膜外网状层突触可塑性和神经回路研究:实验及模型
短句来源
    Modulation of Signal Processing of Retinal Neurons by Zinc
    锌离子对视网膜神经元信号传递的调制
短句来源
    Regulation of Spectral Sensitivity on Retinal Horizontal Cell & AMPA Triggered Intracellular Calcium Dynamics
    视网膜水平细胞光谱敏感性调节及AMPA触发的胞内钙过程
短句来源
    GABA and Glycine Receptors on Carp Retinal Ganglion Cells
    鲫鱼视网膜神经节细胞上的γ-氨基丁酸和甘氨酸受体
短句来源
    Modulation by Melatonin of Signal Processing of Outer Retinal Neurons
    褪黑素对外视网膜神经元信号传递的调制
短句来源
更多       
  retina
    Expression and Modulation of Ion Channels on Amacrine Cells in Rat Retina
    大鼠视网膜无长突细胞上离子通道的表达及其调制
短句来源
    A DISTINCT CENTROPERIPHERAL GRADIENT OF DEVELOPMENT IN DOPAMINERGIC AMACRINE CELLS OF CAT RETINA
    猫视网膜多巴胺能无长突细胞发育的中央—周边梯度
短句来源
    TOMOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF HUMAN RETINA BY LASER SCAN MICROSCOPY
    用激光扫描显微镜对人视网膜组织断层图像的分析
短句来源
    EFFECTS OF PROLONGED DARKNESS AND BACKGROUND ILLUMINATION ON CONE HORIZONTAL CELLS IN CARP RETINA:A CORRELATIVE STUDY OF MORPHOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY
    长时间暗适应和弱背景光对鲤鱼视网膜视锥水平细胞的影响——形态和生理的相关研究
短句来源
    Study on the Ultrastructure of Photoreceptors in the Retina of Sparus macrocephalus Basilewsky
    黑鲷视网膜光感受细胞超微结构研究
短句来源
更多       
  retinal structure
    Comparison on retinal structure of five species of marine fishes
    五种海水鱼视网膜结构的比较
短句来源
    Quantitative Study of Normal Retinal Structure in Zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio)
    斑马鱼(Branchydaniorerio)视网膜正常结构的定量研究
短句来源
    STUDIES ON RETINAL STRUCTURE OF RANA RUGULOSA AND ITS ENVIRONMENTAL ADAPTATION
    虎纹蛙(RANA RUGULOSA)视网膜结构与环境适应性的研究
短句来源
    The retinal structure and ultrastructure of Sparus latus Houttuyn were studied by histo-logical methods during the years of 1983-1984. The main results obtained are as follows. The retina contains numerous rods and cones. There are two morphologically distinguishable types of cones, single cone (SC) and twin cone (TC).
    于1983—1984年,作者以光镜和电镜对采集于厦门海区的黄鳍鲷(Sparus latusHouttuyn)视网膜结构和超微结构进行观察,结果表明:视网膜中存在大量视锥和视杆细胞,其视锥细胞可分为单锥(SC)和双锥(TC)两种;
短句来源
    The morphology of normal retinal structure in zebrafish was studied with 1μm sections stained by toluidine blue, the thickness of every layer and the size and density of ganglion cell nuclei of the retina were examined quantitatively.
    本文采用半薄切片甲苯胺蓝染色方法,对斑马鱼视网膜正常结构进行了形态学观察,并对视网膜各层厚度,特别是神经节细胞层中细胞核的大小和密度进行了定量分析。
短句来源
  outer retina
    Age-related Changes in the Outer Retina and Choroid of Cat
    猫外层视网膜和脉络膜的年龄相关变化
短句来源
    However, the GABAergic feedback pathway inthe outer retina was unnecessarily involved.
    然而,在 GABA 或其拮抗剂 picrotoxin 灌流的离体视网膜上,这种互增强效应依然存在。
短句来源

 

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      retinal
    Best-corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, retinal thickness and FFA were observed.
          
    At the early stages of retina development, the neuroepithelial cells divide synchronously, thus leading to the accumulation of a certain number of the retinal rudiment cells.
          
    Synchronous divisions precede the asynchronous ones, when the differentiation of the retinal cells is initiated.
          
    The multipotent cells of the retinal ciliary-terminal zone and cells of the pigment epithelium in the eye periphery provide for the growth of amphibian and fish eyes during the entire life of these animals.
          
    The main event of retinal regeneration in newts is the transdifferentiation of the pigment epithelium cells.
          
    更多          
      retina
    This is a review of the experimental studies on the vertebrate retina neurogenesis.
          
    At the early stages of retina development, the neuroepithelial cells divide synchronously, thus leading to the accumulation of a certain number of the retinal rudiment cells.
          
    The proliferating multipotent cells are preserved in the ciliary-terminal zone of the retina of amphibians, fish, and chickens during their entire life.
          
    An Immunohistochemical Study of Localization of the Calcium-Binding Protein Recoverin in Retina of the Newt Pleurodeles waltl
          
    The presence and localization of the calcium-binding protein recoverin, initially found in photoreceptors of the bovine eye, were immunochemically studied in retina of the new Pleurodeles waltl.
          
    更多          
      retinal structure
    Greater intensity of deformational vibrations suggests distorted retinal structure in the vibrationally excited ground electronic state.
          
    Development of retinal structure and visual acuity in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)
          
    The retinal structure and visual acuity in Japanese flounderParalichthys olivaceus at different stages of development were examined by light microscopy.
          
    Using standard microscopy techniques we investigated the retinal structure of oilbird eyes and used an ophthalmoscopic reflex technique to determine the parameters of these birds' visual fields.
          
    The extent of this contribution was dependent on the retinal structure in close vicinity to the Shiff base and on the compactness of the protein structure.
          
    更多          
      outer retina
    These results suggest that NO suppresses the activity of rod pathway, but enhances that of cone pathway in the outer retina.
          
    In this experiment several features of the electroretinogram (ERG) were examined to assess developmental changes in signals originating in the outer retina.
          
    The relatively slow development of effectiveness of the 440 spectral mechanism appears to reflect events occurring in the outer retina.
          
    In the outer retina this deficit is confined to rods.
          
    These are the endothelial cells of the inner retinal vasculature and the retinal pigment epithelial cells on Bruch's membrane between the fenestrated choroidal vessels and the outer retina.
          
    更多          


    Nine Marchi series of albino rats in which various points of the retina were destroyed by the method of thermocautery have been carefully studied. The courses and the terminations of the degenerated optic fibers have been determined. The results are summarized by a composite diagram (fig. 9). It shows:(1) that the fibers issuing from the upper quadrant of the retina are lying in the lateral of the optic nerve, crossed in the lower level of the chiasma passed along the medial part of the crossed optic tract and...

    Nine Marchi series of albino rats in which various points of the retina were destroyed by the method of thermocautery have been carefully studied. The courses and the terminations of the degenerated optic fibers have been determined. The results are summarized by a composite diagram (fig. 9). It shows:(1) that the fibers issuing from the upper quadrant of the retina are lying in the lateral of the optic nerve, crossed in the lower level of the chiasma passed along the medial part of the crossed optic tract and terminated partly in the ventral of the posterior half of the lateral geniculate body and partly in the caudolateral part of the superior colliculus;(2) that those from the lower retina are lying in the lower part of the nerve, crossed in the higher level of the chiasma, passed along the lateral border of the crossed tract, and terminated partly in the dorsal part of the anterior half of the lateral geniculate body and partly in the medio-oral part of the superior colliculus;(3) that those from the temporal retina are lying in the lateral part of the nerve, crossed in the lower level of the chiasma, passing through the inner part of the tract and terminated partly in the medial part of the lateral geniculate body and partly in the lateral part of the superior colliculus;(4) that those from the nasal retina are lying in the medial of the nerve, crossed in the higher level of the chiasma, passing through the outer border of the tract and terminated partly in the lateral part HSIANG-TUNG CHANGof the anterior half of the geniculate body and partly in the medial part of the superior colliculus;(5) that those from the peripheral margin of the temporal retina are lying in the lateral half of the nerve, uncrossed in the chiasma, passing through the upper half of the tract, terminated in the central part of the geniculate body and never reached the superior colliculus; and(6) that the anterior and posterior accessory optic tracts composed probably of the collaterals of the crossed optic neurons are traced to the corpus Luysii and the nucleus opticus tegmenti respectively.(7) that the optic fibers also terminate in the pretectal nucleus of the thaIamus.

    本實驗曾將九隻白鼠之視網膜的各處用電燒法加以毁壞,然後用马基氏染色法(Marchi's method)製成連續切片,详加研究,以斷定其枯萎的神经纖维所经之路徑及终止之點。 實驗结果如下: (一) 自網膜上部發出之神经纖維,位於視神经之外侧,由視神经叉之近尾段跨越於對面,又经對邊視神经通路之内側部,而一部终止於背外側膝體之后腹部,一部终止於上叠體之外侧部。 (二) 自網膜下部發出之纖維,位於視神经之下侧,由視神经叉之近首段跨越於對邊,再沿對邊視神经通路之外侧進行,而一部终止於背外側膝體之前背部,一部终止於上叠體之前内側部。 (三) 自網膜外侧部發出之纖维,位於視神经之外侧部,由視神经叉之近尾段跨越於對面,再沿對邊視神经通路之内側部進行,而一部终止於背外側膝體之后内側部,一部终止於上叠體之外側部。 (四) 自網膜内側部發出之纖维,位於视神经之内側,由视神经叉之近首叚跨越於對面,再经對邊視神经通路之外邊,而一部终止於背外側膝體之前外側部,一部终止於上叠體之内側部。 (五) 自網膜之外側邊緣部發出之纖维,位於视神经之外側,不到對邊,经本邊視神经通路之下半部而终止於背外侧膝體之中央。無及於上叠體者。 (六) 前副視神经...

    本實驗曾將九隻白鼠之視網膜的各處用電燒法加以毁壞,然後用马基氏染色法(Marchi's method)製成連續切片,详加研究,以斷定其枯萎的神经纖维所经之路徑及终止之點。 實驗结果如下: (一) 自網膜上部發出之神经纖維,位於視神经之外侧,由視神经叉之近尾段跨越於對面,又经對邊視神经通路之内側部,而一部终止於背外側膝體之后腹部,一部终止於上叠體之外侧部。 (二) 自網膜下部發出之纖維,位於視神经之下侧,由視神经叉之近首段跨越於對邊,再沿對邊視神经通路之外侧進行,而一部终止於背外側膝體之前背部,一部终止於上叠體之前内側部。 (三) 自網膜外侧部發出之纖维,位於視神经之外侧部,由視神经叉之近尾段跨越於對面,再沿對邊視神经通路之内側部進行,而一部终止於背外側膝體之后内側部,一部终止於上叠體之外側部。 (四) 自網膜内側部發出之纖维,位於视神经之内側,由视神经叉之近首叚跨越於對面,再经對邊視神经通路之外邊,而一部终止於背外側膝體之前外側部,一部终止於上叠體之内側部。 (五) 自網膜之外側邊緣部發出之纖维,位於视神经之外側,不到對邊,经本邊視神经通路之下半部而终止於背外侧膝體之中央。無及於上叠體者。 (六) 前副視神经通路,终止於路易斯氏體(Corpus Luysii),而后副视神经通路則终止於视底巢(

    An electrophysiological study has been made on the change in photosensitivity duringthe course of dark adaptation and the relation between the intensity of the stimulus andthe magnitude of response in the compound eye of the armyworm moth.1. The electroretinogram (ERG) of this species ordinarily consists of four com-ponents. These are the 'on-effect' which appears as a positive deflection of short dura-tion, the essential negative wave which is believed to be of receptor cell origin, a positivedeflection occurred...

    An electrophysiological study has been made on the change in photosensitivity duringthe course of dark adaptation and the relation between the intensity of the stimulus andthe magnitude of response in the compound eye of the armyworm moth.1. The electroretinogram (ERG) of this species ordinarily consists of four com-ponents. These are the 'on-effect' which appears as a positive deflection of short dura-tion, the essential negative wave which is believed to be of receptor cell origin, a positivedeflection occurred at the ascending limb of the negative wave, and a negative 'off' spike.Under different conditions these components may influence each other so that the ERGcould take different forms. Among these components, however, the negative wave is themost important in indicating the magnitude of response.2. The photosensitivity of the compound eye increased during the course of darkadaptation which was completed in about 30 to 45 minutes by keeping the intact speci-men in complete darkness. The potential of the negative wave at that time was foundto be four times that at the end of the first fifteen seconds when dark adaptationstarted.3. It was found that the relationship between the intensity of stimulus (expressedas the logarithm of illumination) and the magnitude of response (the maximum potentialchange as measured by the height of the negative wave) approximates a straight line inthe range of log I = -0.5 to 3.0 (log I = 0.5 about 8.7 lux, log I = 3.0 about 1038 1ux).4. Since there was a conspicuous individual disparity in the magnitude of response toa definite intensity of stimulus, a statistical analysis shows that difference in this respectbetween male and female moths is not significant and the responses at definite intensitiesof stimulus are fairly reproducible.

    本文用电生理学的方法,研究了粘虫成虫复眼在暗适应过程中感受性的变化,及暗适应后感觉反应与闪光刺激强度之间的相互关系。复眼的光感受性随着暗适应时间的延长而逐渐增加;暗适应第15秒钟时与暗适应完成后所产生的感受器电位强度相差4倍。完成暗适应的时间大约为30—45分钟。暗适应后的感受器电位与闪光强度的对数(LogI)之间的关系,在闪光强度LogI=-0.5到3.0的范围内,几乎为正比例的直线相关。网膜电流图一般包含四种成分:①开光反应,表现为短暂的正电位变化:③主要的、起源于感受器的负电位变化:③发生于负电位升起端的正相电位;及④表现为负电位的闭光效应。它们彼此间能相互影响,使视网膜电流图在不同情况下有不同的外形,其中占优势的为感受器产生的负电位。本工作表明雌雄个体之间在视网膜电位的反应方面差异不明显。

    (1) By means of an integrating sphere, the whole retina can be stimulated simultaneously by a diffusely scattered light. Under dark-adapted condition, the a-wave of the electroretinogram thus elicited consists of a conspicuous photopic component with 3 distinct wavelets (a_1, a_2, a_3) and a large scotopic component (a_s) which forms the peak of the whole a-wave. Similar photopic a-wavelets can also be elicited by stimulation with Maxwellian view of 52°, but with this mode of stimulation a_s is inconspicuous...

    (1) By means of an integrating sphere, the whole retina can be stimulated simultaneously by a diffusely scattered light. Under dark-adapted condition, the a-wave of the electroretinogram thus elicited consists of a conspicuous photopic component with 3 distinct wavelets (a_1, a_2, a_3) and a large scotopic component (a_s) which forms the peak of the whole a-wave. Similar photopic a-wavelets can also be elicited by stimulation with Maxwellian view of 52°, but with this mode of stimulation a_s is inconspicuous and appears only after the peak of the a-wave. (2) The scotopic component was differentiated from the photopic one on the basis of three types of experiments: (ⅰ) By comparing the time course of recovery during dark adaptation, it can be seen that the recovery of the photopic component starts almost immediately with dark adaptation while that of the scotopic component shows a considerable delay. (ⅱ) At a suitable intensity of the stimulating light the successive responses of the scotopic component to successive stimulation at 5-second intervals decrease progressively, while those of the photopic component show practically no changes. (ⅲ) At suitable light intensity the effective duration of a stimulus could be shown to be longer for the scotopic component than for the photopic. (3) The peak latencies of a_1, a_2, a_3 and a_s were separated by fairly regular intervale of about 7 msec, for a wide range of stimulus intensity either with the diffuse light or with light in Maxwellian view. However, with decreasing stimulus intensity, all the peak latencies increased more rapidly with the diffuse light than with the Maxwellian view. The peak latencies were little affected by light adaptation up to a moderate intensity. (4) A major portion of a_s could be suppressed by a weak light adaptation, the required intensity being only 10~3 times the absolute threshold. This sensitivity of the greater portion of a_s toward light adaptation paralleled exactly that of the scotopic b-wave. The remaining portion of a_s behaved more or less like a photopic wavelet. (5) Analysis shows that the composite a-wave is the result of superposition of an oscillatory potential, presumably generated by the bipolar layer, upon a more sustained negative potential due to the receptor cells. The differences in the form of the a-wave recorded under different conditions and the disagreements among the previous workers in the identification of its components are discussed.

    (一)利用积分球的方法可使全部視网膜同时受到弥散光的照射。在完全暗适应的情况下,这种刺激所引起的ERG的α波包含一个明显的明視α波和一个更大的暗視α波,后者成为整个α波的波峰;在明視α波之上,又可以辨別出三个小波(α_1,α_2,α_3)。用52° Maxwell投射光刺激也能引起类似的小明視α波,但整个明视α波相对地比暗視α波大得多,后者只出現在α波的波峰之后。 (二)暗視α波与明視α波是通过下列三类实驗来加以区別的:(1)在暗适应过程中,明視α波的振幅几乎是在暗适应一开始就立即明显增长,而暗視α波的恢复則要經过一段潜伏期。(2)在适当的光刺激强度下,当暗視α波的振幅对間隔5秒的重复刺激逐漸减小以至消失时,明視α波的振幅对相继的刺激很少变化。(3)在适当的光强度下,引起暗視α波的有效刺激时間比明視α波的长。 (三)不論是用弥散光照射或Maxwell投射光刺激,在相当大的刺激强度范圍,明視α波的α_(1-3)三个小波和暗視α波四个波之間的峰潜伏期間隔約为7毫秒。不过当光刺激强度减弱,由弥散光引起的各α波的峰潜伏期的增长比用Maxwell投射光刺激时的增长为快。中等强度以下的明适应对各α波的波峰潜伏期的影响很少...

    (一)利用积分球的方法可使全部視网膜同时受到弥散光的照射。在完全暗适应的情况下,这种刺激所引起的ERG的α波包含一个明显的明視α波和一个更大的暗視α波,后者成为整个α波的波峰;在明視α波之上,又可以辨別出三个小波(α_1,α_2,α_3)。用52° Maxwell投射光刺激也能引起类似的小明視α波,但整个明视α波相对地比暗視α波大得多,后者只出現在α波的波峰之后。 (二)暗視α波与明視α波是通过下列三类实驗来加以区別的:(1)在暗适应过程中,明視α波的振幅几乎是在暗适应一开始就立即明显增长,而暗視α波的恢复則要經过一段潜伏期。(2)在适当的光刺激强度下,当暗視α波的振幅对間隔5秒的重复刺激逐漸减小以至消失时,明視α波的振幅对相继的刺激很少变化。(3)在适当的光强度下,引起暗視α波的有效刺激时間比明視α波的长。 (三)不論是用弥散光照射或Maxwell投射光刺激,在相当大的刺激强度范圍,明視α波的α_(1-3)三个小波和暗視α波四个波之間的峰潜伏期間隔約为7毫秒。不过当光刺激强度减弱,由弥散光引起的各α波的峰潜伏期的增长比用Maxwell投射光刺激时的增长为快。中等强度以下的明适应对各α波的波峰潜伏期的影响很少。 (四)暗視α波的大部分能为很弱的明适应光所抑制,这个明适应光的强度大約只相当于絕对阈值的1000倍。这个敏感度和暗視b波对明适应的敏感度完全相当。在明适应下所剩下的α_s波和α_p波的性质差不多。 (五)对α波成分的分析表明,一个复合的α波是由一种可能从双极細胞层产生的振蕩电位迭加于一个較持久的由感受細胞所产生的負电位之上而形成的。对于以前有关工作所記录到的不同形状的α波以及对各个α波部分的鉴別沒有取得一致意見的原因,曾加以討論。

     
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