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    ACTA UNIVERSITATIS SEPTENTRIONALI OCCIDENTALI AGRICUL TURAE Vol.15.1987 No.53-56
    西北农业大学学报 1987年 第15卷目录 第53—56期
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    JOURNAL OF HEBEI AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY 1989Vol.12No.1-4
    河北农业大学学报1989第12卷目次1—4期
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    JOURNAL OF HUBEI AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE Vol. 12 MAIN CONTENTS 1992
    湖北农学院学报 1992年(第12卷)目次
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    ACTA PRATACULTURAE SINICA vol.2 No.1~4(Cumulated No.2~5)1993
    草业学报1993年目录 第2卷 第1~4(2~5期)
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    ANALYSIS FOR GENETIC EFFCTS OF CRUDE PROTEIN CONTENT AND ITS FRACTION CONTENT IN SORGHUM
    高粱籽粒蛋白及其4种组分含量的遗传效应分析
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1.Evenness as commonly referred to stand regularities and variability of plant charactersis a problem of some practical significance.Irregularities caused by imperfect germination,planting defect,non-uniformity of seed size are commonly met in ordinary field conditions. The problem has been studied in detail by Engledow and others (6-20).For plant withtillering ability as rice,the question of evenness is more complicated in that the side tillerswhich are consecutively given out,and thus vary greatly in size...

1.Evenness as commonly referred to stand regularities and variability of plant charactersis a problem of some practical significance.Irregularities caused by imperfect germination,planting defect,non-uniformity of seed size are commonly met in ordinary field conditions. The problem has been studied in detail by Engledow and others (6-20).For plant withtillering ability as rice,the question of evenness is more complicated in that the side tillerswhich are consecutively given out,and thus vary greatly in size can develop as independentunits.The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of tillering on the evennessof rice plants of different field densities in the course of development.2.Evenness of any plant character is expressed in terms of a coefficient (C.E.) i.e.x/Sx which is the reciprocal of coefficient of variability (C.V.).The larger the C.E.,thehigher is the evenness.All the observations were made on per tiller basis.From the systema-tic records,however,the evenness at other levels,such as per main shoot,per plant or perhill can be easily calculated.3.At the seedling stage,when no tiller has yet been formed,the C.E.of the denselyplanted plot is higher than that of the sparsely planted plot;at the harvesting stage,thesituation is reversed (Tab.1,2 & Fig.1).The abundancy of tillers and the high degree ofevenness at harvesting stage are always parallel phenomenon,since both are results of favor-able environment conditions under which the plants grow.Dressing at late-tillering stage hasa positive effect on evenness.4.The C.E.of the tiller height varies with developmental stages.In spite of thedifferent planting densities and dressing regimes,the general trend of change is similar.Atthe seedling stage,all tillers (main shoots) are normally distributed about a mean height,thedegree of variability being moderate.At the shooting stage,the C.E.falls to a low valueand the distribution curve becomes skewed and may show two maxima.This change is dueprimarily to the consecutive formation of new tillers on the one hand and the rapid elongation ofolder tillers on the other.The change of C.E.from low to high value from the boltingstage onward is apparently due to two causes:namely,the higher growth rate of the smalltillers over that of the older ones (Tab.4,5 & Fig.2),and the dying off of the very smalltillers (Tab.3).5.In the densely planted plot,the degree of evenness does not show so much changewhen the C.E.'s at the seedling stage and harvesting stage are compared.In such a plot therelative growth rate of the small tillers may never surpass that of the large ones.It isplausible to infer that this failure is due mainly to the shortage of food material necessaryfor rapid growth,as the smaller tillers in a dense plot are severely shaded.6.The rate of height increase of a particular tiller is a function of its own height,thedevelopmental stage and the environmental conditions some of which are affected by the heightdistribution of the surrounding plants.Death of tillers is also dependent on height distribu-tion (Fig.3),none of those which does not elongate at the proper shooting stage becomesfertile.7.Since the tiller weight varies with the cube of the tiller height (Tab.6 & Fig.4),and the panicle weight and number of spikelets are linearly correlated with tiller weight(Tab.10),the C.E.'s of tiller weight,panicle weight and number of spikelets are alwayslower than that of the tiller height.The difference is usually 4-5 folds (Tab.7 & 8).There-fore,relative high evenness in plant height does not necessarily imply high C.E.'s in tillerweight or other panicle characters.8.In fields of ordinary densities,the panicle weight is linearly correlated with the tillerweight.If the total dry weight of the population and the average tiller weight are equal,the degree of dispersion of tiller weight will pratically not affect the final grain yield.

本文通过试验资料分析了稻田整齐度的变化规律。各时期整齐度的高低与分蘖消长及大小蘖生长速度的快慢有密切的关系。在不同密肥条件下,整齐度变化的趋势均是趋于提高,但稀植多肥的情况下提高较多。文中并用统计方法分析了各项生长指标的整齐度之间的关系,以及整齐度对产量的影响等。

From 1957 to 1960,colchicine aqueous solution has been used for doubling the number ofchromosomes in wheat-rye F_1 hybrids.The concentrations of colchicine used for treatmentwere 0.04% and 0.05%.Hybrid seedlings were exposed in colchicine solution for 4 days inroom temperature not over 15℃.After the treatment,the seedlings were transplanted ingreenhouse where a condition of high humidity and comparatively low temperature (usuallybelow 10℃) was maintained until the seedlings had recovered from colchicine poisoning.Themain...

From 1957 to 1960,colchicine aqueous solution has been used for doubling the number ofchromosomes in wheat-rye F_1 hybrids.The concentrations of colchicine used for treatmentwere 0.04% and 0.05%.Hybrid seedlings were exposed in colchicine solution for 4 days inroom temperature not over 15℃.After the treatment,the seedlings were transplanted ingreenhouse where a condition of high humidity and comparatively low temperature (usuallybelow 10℃) was maintained until the seedlings had recovered from colchicine poisoning.Themain results are summarized as follows:1.A total of 4210 wheat-rye F_1 hybrid seedlings were treated with colchicine and 2599or 61.7% of the treated seedlings had recovered from the treatment.2.Among the recovered seedlings,about 40.8% of the sterile F_1 hybrid plants were turnedto be partial fertile and various amount of seeds were obtained from these successful plants.3.Whither the hybrid seedlings were vegetatively propagated by separating the tillersor not,no difference in percentage of successful plants has been observed.However,theseedlings which have been slightly wounded on crown part by a sharp razor blade before treat- ment,resulted in 8.8% more successful plants than those not wounded.4.In successful plants,an average of 30% of spikes would be partial fertile and setvarius amount of seeds.In other words,an average of 30% of the spikes that came from theaxile buds which have been exposed directly to colchicine treatment,would become sectorialchimera of polyhaploid and amphidiploid.The tillers that came from the directly exposedaxile buds are called primary tillers.5.The tillers that came from the axile buds of the primary tillers are called secondarytillers.According to the analysis of the data,it has been shown that the secondary tillerusually begin at the eighth tiller of an individual plant.Compared with the primary tillers,only 10% of the secondary tillers,as calculated from the data,would show sectorial chimeraon spikes and set various amount of seeds.6.The chimera spikes would produce 7 grains per spike in average.In an individualplant,the fewer the number of chimera spikes,the less the number of grains could be pro-duced by each chimera spike.In the case of only one chimera spike per plant,only 4.5 grainsin average per changed spike could be obtained.While there was 6 changed spikes per plant,the number of grains per chimera spike would increase to 22.4.7.If the average number of primary tillers of the recovered plants could be increasedto 6 or 7 per plant by some proper measures at tillering stage,it has been estimated that inaddition to the usual rate of successful plants,at least 15% more could be obtained.8.After analysis of the data,it has been clearly shown that the axile buds which havebeen effected by treatment would have a less chance to grow into tillers than those which havenot been effected.If we could find some proper measures to eliminate such a difference intillering,then,by estimation,the percentage of successful plants could be increased to morethan 80%.This is an interesting problem to be studied concerning the efficiency of colchicinetechnique.9.A total of 712 lines of Triticales have been thus produced by doubling the number ofchromosomes in wheat-rye F_1 hybrids with colchicine treatment at tillering stage.

自1957年到1960年曾三次用秋水仙精处理小麦——黑麦杂种第一代的分蘖苗,获得小黑麦品系712个。秋水仙精用0.05%及0.04%水溶液,处理时间四天。在处理后的成活植株中,处理成功的植株,三次平均占40.8%。根据资料分析的结果,由直接受到处理影响的腋芽所长成的一次分蘖有30%的成功率,而由一次分蘖上所长出来的未直接受到处理影响的二次分蘖则只有10%的成功率。如能促使处理后恢复的植株尽可能多地产生一次分蘖,使每一单株都具有6—7个以上穗子,这样,以株为单位的处理成功率估计至少还能增加15%。

~~

我国绿肥多分布于高温多湿的长江流域,陕西绿肥亦多集中于秦岭以南。半干旱的关中地区是否有发展绿肥的可能性?在农业工作者中认识极不一致,有进一步研究的必要。关中年降雨量在500—700毫米之间,夏闲期(6—9月)正值高温多雨季节,对绿肥的生长、翻压和分解十分有利。但由于降雨量在地区上的分布不均,且年雨量变化大,特别是春旱较严重,对旱地绿肥播种、生长、翻压却又带来了一定的风险。从关中豆科绿肥的种类来衡量,夏播绿肥,如绿豆、黑豆、小豆等,和夏末秋初播种的毛苕,其播种、生长及翻压期均在雨季或雨季后的湿润气候条件下,栽培成功的可能性最大。草木樨系春季套播于麦田,与主要作物还有着较复杂的关系,且生长期长,经春、夏、秋三个季节,而春旱是播种、出苗和保苗的主要威胁。解决草木樨出苗和保苗的主要措施是,冬季播种或早春解冻初期播下,借助于解冻水分把苗出好。早春不但土壤湿度高,且小麦荫蔽不大,有利于出苗和根系的发育。只要根系发育良好,草木樨耐旱力强,保苗问题可以获得解决。7、8、9月为关中雨季,也是草木樨生长和翻压有利的季节。只要掌握在7月底到8月上旬进行翻压,对绿肥的分解及土壤蓄墒均无不良影响,在一般正常气候的条件下,关中旱地发展草...

我国绿肥多分布于高温多湿的长江流域,陕西绿肥亦多集中于秦岭以南。半干旱的关中地区是否有发展绿肥的可能性?在农业工作者中认识极不一致,有进一步研究的必要。关中年降雨量在500—700毫米之间,夏闲期(6—9月)正值高温多雨季节,对绿肥的生长、翻压和分解十分有利。但由于降雨量在地区上的分布不均,且年雨量变化大,特别是春旱较严重,对旱地绿肥播种、生长、翻压却又带来了一定的风险。从关中豆科绿肥的种类来衡量,夏播绿肥,如绿豆、黑豆、小豆等,和夏末秋初播种的毛苕,其播种、生长及翻压期均在雨季或雨季后的湿润气候条件下,栽培成功的可能性最大。草木樨系春季套播于麦田,与主要作物还有着较复杂的关系,且生长期长,经春、夏、秋三个季节,而春旱是播种、出苗和保苗的主要威胁。解决草木樨出苗和保苗的主要措施是,冬季播种或早春解冻初期播下,借助于解冻水分把苗出好。早春不但土壤湿度高,且小麦荫蔽不大,有利于出苗和根系的发育。只要根系发育良好,草木樨耐旱力强,保苗问题可以获得解决。7、8、9月为关中雨季,也是草木樨生长和翻压有利的季节。只要掌握在7月底到8月上旬进行翻压,对绿肥的分解及土壤蓄墒均无不良影响,在一般正常气候的条件下,关中旱地发展草木樨绿肥的可能性是存在的。从关中降雨、气温及作物布局来考虑,秦岭以北、渭河以南和省西平原区,年雨量在600—700毫米之间,且分布较均匀,为多种绿肥发展的有利地区。省西北山沼山丘陵区及渭北高原区降雨量在600毫米左右,但气候冷凉,适于发展夏播短期绿肥及毛苕绿肥。省中、省东旱塬区,年雨量为500毫米左右,夏秋雨季常错前推后,变化较大,夏播绿肥及草木樨的栽培均有较大的风险,但雨量能满足毛苕的需要,发展棉田绿肥毛苕有较大的希望。

 
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