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科学     
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  scientific
    Reality and the Truth of Scientific Theory
    实在与科学理论的真理性
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    ON THE MODEL OF SCIENTIFIC THEORY
    科学理论模式初探
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    In this article,the D-S evidence theory is used to judge the reliability of scientific hypothesis.
    本文将D-S证据理论应用于判断科学假说的可靠性。
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    PASTEUR'S THOUGHTS OF SCIENTIFIC PHILOSOPHY
    巴斯德的科学哲学思想
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    On the links and procedure of thinking in the scientific revolution
    科学革命中思维活动的构成环节及其实现程序
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  science
    Science:Criticism and Liberty
    科学、批判与自由
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    The Philosophy of Science as a Foundational study
    作为一种基础研究的科学哲学
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    CREATIVE SELF-CRITICISM IN SCIENCE AND IN ART
    科学和艺术中的创造性自我批评
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    《Zhou Yi》 and Modern Science
    周易与现代科学
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    Philosophical Research and General Science Knowledge
    哲学研究与科学常识—对唯物辩证法与系统论关系问题讨论的一些看法
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  sciences
    Studies on the Methodology of Complexity Sciences
    复杂性科学的方法论研究
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    Viewpoint of Philosophy on System Sciences
    系统科学中的哲学思想
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    Sciences Explanation and Humanities Understanding
    科学解释和人文理解
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    The Book of Changes · Sciences · the 21st Century ——Examples and Cognition
    周易·科学·21世纪——实例和认识
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    The Unpredictability of Emergence and the Limit of Cognitive Ability——The View of Complexity Sciences
    论突现的不可预测性和认知能力的界限——从复杂性科学的观点看
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  science and
    CREATIVE SELF-CRITICISM IN SCIENCE AND IN ART
    科学和艺术中的创造性自我批评
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    Science and Humanism
    科学和人本主义
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    The Parochial Understanding of Science and Humanistic Spirit
    对科学与人文精神的片面理解──现代西方人本主义文化观及其偏颇
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    Technology, Economics, Science and Philosophy
    技术、经济学、科学与哲学
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    Three Levels of Relation between Science and Religion
    科学与宗教关系的三个层次
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      scientific
    aureus provides scientific evidence for use in skin diseases and toothaches.
          
    A quantity of scientific publications steadily grows from year to year, this implyies that the QSRR enormous advantage and potential in chemistry, biology, and pharmacology.
          
    The generation of good pseudo-random numbers is the base of many important fields in scientific computing, such as randomized algorithms and numerical solution, of stochastic differential equations.
          
    We concluded that the conversion project from croplands to forests and grasslands based on scientific principles is very important in the formation of carbon sinks for reducing greenhouse effects.
          
    In order to provide a scientific foundation for the protection of the Metasequoia resource, it has become necessary to analyze the changes in the original, natural Metasequoia mother trees (ONMMT) and their environment from 1948 to 2003.
          
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      science
    An operational calculus for the euclidean motion group with applications in robotics and polymer science
          
    We demonstrate these tools in the context of applications in robotics and polymer science.
          
    A partial differential equation from polymer science is shown to be solvable using the operational properties of the Euclidean-group Fourier transform.
          
    Nanotechnology is thus expected to thoroughly affect the way science addresses medicine, food, electronics and the environment.
          
    A quantitative structure-retention relationships (QSRR) approach, as one of the all-important areas in modern chemical science, gives knowledge that is practical and necessary for drug design, combinatorial, and medicinal chemistries.
          
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      sciences
    The pharmaceutical sciences are advancing rapidly in the post-genomic era of the 21st century with the completion of the human genome, as well as those of many other organisms including bacteria and parasites, and the rapid advances in proteomics.
          
    The spatial variability of total soil nematodes and trophic groups in bare and fallow plots in Shenyang Experimental Station of Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences was examined using geostatistics combined with classic statistics.
          
    The 90th Anniversary of Sergei Vasil'evich Durmishidze, Member of the Georgian Academy of Sciences (1910-1989)
          
    The lytic activities of 310 cultures from the Collection of Actinomycetes of the Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, National Academy of Sciences of Georgia, were studied; 18% of these strains appeared capable of lysing yeast cell wall.
          
    The 75th Birthday of Martin Ekabovich Beker, Academician of the Latvian Academy of Sciences
          
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      science and
    It is recognized throughout history that understanding the properties of resources and transforming these resources into products are regarded as the nucleus of science and technology.
          
    Understanding the properties of information and transforming the information into products will then play a crucial role in the development of science and technology in the information age.
          
    At the end of this paper, the development directions of mechanical manufacturing science and technology are mentioned.
          
    Unsorted database search is a very important problem in science and technology.
          
    Basic research in computer science and software engineering at SKLCS
          
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    The history of China has recorded three major foreign cultural inflows, among which the introduction of India's Buddhism into China (1—9 cent. A. D.)is the first. The second inflow is that of the Western natural sciences dating from mid-Ming Dynasty to early Qing Dynasty. And the latest one is the allround inflow of Western culture following the Opium War, culminating in the introduction of Marxism-Leninism into China during the May Fourth Move ment.The foreign culture pounded at China's traditional cultural...

    The history of China has recorded three major foreign cultural inflows, among which the introduction of India's Buddhism into China (1—9 cent. A. D.)is the first. The second inflow is that of the Western natural sciences dating from mid-Ming Dynasty to early Qing Dynasty. And the latest one is the allround inflow of Western culture following the Opium War, culminating in the introduction of Marxism-Leninism into China during the May Fourth Move ment.The foreign culture pounded at China's traditional cultural structure and caused inevitable Shockwaves and changes. The two cultures have undergone a long and complicated process of mutually contradicting, conflicting, harmonizing, and inter-assimilation. This paper is an investigation into the three phases experienced by India's Buddhism in China, that is, "imitating","conflicting", and "harmonizing". And in this light the paper expounds the "open" nature of China's culture. Recalling the past can enlighten the future. The above-discussed history might render some enlightenment for China's on-going cause of modernization.

    中国历史上有三次大规模的外来文化的传入:第一次是公元一世纪到九世纪印度佛教的传入,第二次是明中叶到清初西方自然科学的传入,第三次是鸦片战争以后西方文化的全面传播,特别是五四运动时期马克思主义的传入。外来文化的冲击必然引起,传统文化结构的震荡和改变,这两者之间有一个相互矛盾、冲突、融合、吸收的长期而复杂的过程。本文考察了印度佛教传入中国后“比附”、“冲突”、“融合”的三个阶段,探讨了中国文化开放型的特点。“前事不忘,后世之师”,从这一历史过程中我们也许能吸收一些对中国现代化进程有教益的东西。

    Lu Xun and Hu Shi are two prominent figures in the modern cultural history of China. However, the past appraisement of them has been suffeting from being confined to their divergency in political standpoint. This essay is an effort to achieve an objective analysis and comparison of the two with respect to the cultural factors and academic concepts on the basis of the entire cultural environment. The author holds the view that Lu Xun and Hu Shi did not digress from the general orientation of science and democracy...

    Lu Xun and Hu Shi are two prominent figures in the modern cultural history of China. However, the past appraisement of them has been suffeting from being confined to their divergency in political standpoint. This essay is an effort to achieve an objective analysis and comparison of the two with respect to the cultural factors and academic concepts on the basis of the entire cultural environment. The author holds the view that Lu Xun and Hu Shi did not digress from the general orientation of science and democracy in China inspire of their different ideological and political stands. Though they did not agree to each other in their under standing of patriotism and humanitarianism, the two represent a general red thread running through their ideological systems. Hu Shi's wrong po litical stand has cast a shadow on his ideological system. Nonetheless, taking everything into consideration and viewed in the whole context of the modern history of culture and ideology in China, we have to admit that his achievement still outweighs his errors.

    鲁迅和胡适是中国现代文化史上的两位知名人物。过去对他们的评价较多地拘泥于其政治立场的差异。本文力图客观地以整体的文化环境为背景,从文化因素和学术思想方面分析比较鲁迅和胡适的思想。作者认为,鲁迅和胡适虽有不同的思想轨迹和政治立场,但都没有偏离现代中国的以科学和民主为旗帜的大方向;尽管他们对爱国主义和人道主义的理解不尽相同,但二者都是贯穿他们思想的红线;胡适错误的政治立场给他的学术思想蒙上阴影,但在中国现代文化思想史上,他仍然是功大于过的人物。

    Founding Newton's mechanical System is an immortal milestone in scientific history. Newton not only inhenrited the predecessor's splendid results, but also tried some scientific methods, so he got very important achievements. Newton's outstanding contribution to the methods is founding new method to unite mathematical research and physical study. This method embodies the unity of both analysis with synthesis and induction with deduction. It is a crux that Newton exceeded forefathers and became the great master...

    Founding Newton's mechanical System is an immortal milestone in scientific history. Newton not only inhenrited the predecessor's splendid results, but also tried some scientific methods, so he got very important achievements. Newton's outstanding contribution to the methods is founding new method to unite mathematical research and physical study. This method embodies the unity of both analysis with synthesis and induction with deduction. It is a crux that Newton exceeded forefathers and became the great master of scieace. As Newton's mechanics system was a comprehensive exprossion of achievements in mechanical research since 16th century, Newton's scientific method was also synthetical result of two methodological trend of the empiricism and the rationalism since the Renaissance. Only Catching this point, We can know that the unity of Newton's achievements and methods is inevitable of history. It is a logical result of scientific development oneself.

    牛顿力学体系的创立,是科学史上的一座不朽丰碑。它不但是牛顿出色地继承前人科学成果的结晶,而且也是他在科学方法上大胆创新的产物。牛顿在科学方法上的突出贡献是,创立了数学和物理学研究相统一的新方法,这种研究方法很好地体现了分析与综合、归纳与演绎的统一。这也正是牛顿能够超过前人成长为科学的时代巨人的一个关键。正如同牛顿力学体系是十六世纪以来力学研究成果之集大成一样,牛顿的科学方法也是文艺复兴以来经验论和唯理论两大科学方法论潮流的历史性综合。只有认识到这一点,我们才能深刻领会牛顿的科学成就和科学方法的统一,是历史的必然,是由科学发展自身的逻辑决定的。

     
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