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营养阶层
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  trophic levels
     Hunting food behavior of natural enemy depends on information from various trophic levels, especially chemical information.
     天敌搜寻食物的行为依赖于来自不同营养阶层上的信息,化学信息起重要作用。
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  “营养阶层”译为未确定词的双语例句
     The niche breadth and niche overlap of four pests on the same trophic level (cruciferous plants) were estimated with Levins index and Pianka's measure in three dimensions: trophic level, time and spatial resources array.
     以Levins生态位宽度指数和Pianka生态位重叠指数估计发生在同一营养阶层的 4种主要十字花科植物害虫营养生态位、时间生态位和空间生态位的生态位宽度和重叠度。
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     the nutritional function;
     营养作用 ;
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     Environmental Nutrition
     环境营养
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     the other was the intellectual stratum.
     一是知识分子阶层
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     The Disappearance of a Social Class in China
     一个阶层的消失
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  trophic levels
Unbalanced composition of higher trophic levels results in an unstable functioning of the lake and accumulation of significant amounts of detritus, which is utilized by the abundant microzoobenthic component of the ecosystem.
      
It is noted that at higher trophic levels, the ecosystem of the Caspian Sea intensely assimilates allochthonous OM, and that the Black Sea ecosystem transfers considerable amounts of OM to the hydrogen sulfide zone.
      
Bioassay studies were based on recording acute and chronic toxic effects for three test species at different trophic levels.
      
Based on experiments of periphyte response to different trophic levels and their impact on macrophyte production, it was found that the periphyte biomass increased with the nutrient concentrations.
      
Nematodes were analysed according to the trophic levels, which included microbial feeders, plant feeders and predators.
      
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Arthropod community is an important part of eco\|system of paddy field .Studies on its community are one of basic work on dynamics,forecast and optimum control of rice insect pests .The construction,alteration law,niche and diversity of arthropod community in paddy fields were primilarly conducted by the method of systematic survey in field combined with laboratory experiment,base on the data from the field investigation and experiment. Through a systematic investigation ,spot observation and indoor raising...

Arthropod community is an important part of eco\|system of paddy field .Studies on its community are one of basic work on dynamics,forecast and optimum control of rice insect pests .The construction,alteration law,niche and diversity of arthropod community in paddy fields were primilarly conducted by the method of systematic survey in field combined with laboratory experiment,base on the data from the field investigation and experiment. Through a systematic investigation ,spot observation and indoor raising ,the arthropods in rice fields including 10 orders ,29 families ,66 species of insect(included 7 orders, 20 families , 51 species of natural enemies) as well as 10 families , 20 species of Arachnoidea were found.The dominant species of insects in Nongda, Wangjia and Damiao experimental fields are Naranga aenescens 、Delphacidae(Nilaparvata lugens and Sogatella furcifera) 、 Oxya chinensis , and these three pest species number to total species number in percentage was 81 71%, 97 08% and 80 18% respectively in Nongda ,Wangjia and Damiao experimental field .The major insect natural enemies were Ichneumonoidae 、Nabit stenoferus、Paederus fuscipes、Libellulidae and Coccinellidae, and there seasonal abundance changes with the insect pest population dynamics. Clubiona japonicola 、Erigonidium graminicolum 、Misumenops tricuspidatus、Tetragnatha extensa and Argiops bruennichiithat were the dominant species of paddy spider sub communities in three fields in order ,amounted to 89 92% of the total ones, especially the first three species amounted to 75 53%. The relationships between two trophic levels of pests and natural enemies were analysed by temporal and spacial niche. According to the temporal niche widths value B(I) , it could be seen that the time that Oxya chinensis harmed rice was longer than Naranga aenescens、Delphacidae . The occurrence period of Coccinellidae、Itoplectis narangae was longer than the other natural enemies . Clubiona japonicola、Erigonidium graminicolum happened much longer among spiders. The time niche overlapping values showed the synchronous degree that insects and nataral enemies occured .In general, temporal niche overlapping value of insect pests and natural enemy was very high, about >0 9500, perhaps this was a distinguishing feature between the northern paddy system and the southern one. The analysis of community diversity, evenness and dominance showed that ,three paddy communities were all senitive to outside interference, and appeared consistantly. The results showed that H′ value of paddy arthropod was low (<3 0) and this indicated that the stability of the community was poor . D value of pests was high and the dominance was large at the earlier stage of rice growth ,then, D value of insect natural enemy increased and the d value of insects pests decreased with the growth of crops and the increase of the number of natural enemies. The number of insects and natural enemies was little and the E value was small and the evenness was poor at the initial stage of rice growth. But the E value inclined to 1 with the increase of the insects psets and the natural enemies population. It was time that the communities of the whole paddy system were evenest. According to the construction and fluctuation of paddy Arthropod communities and the rice growth and the cultivated condition , the paddy communities were divided into four periods by using the optimal point analysis method . The characteristics and management strategies of pest communities in different peroids were discussed . The characteristics in each peroid of Arthropod communities were seen according to the four peroids combined with climate factors and the season change of main insects and natural enemies. The early of may to the end of June, from rice transplanting rice seedlings to tiller stage, Arthropod communities of paddy system is at the beginning peroid. Only the first generation of Naranga aenescens was abundant at

通过对沈阳地区稻田生态系统节肢动物群落结构及群落生态研究。共查得 ,属昆虫纲的有 1 0个目 2 9科 66种 ,其中天敌昆虫种类有 7目 2 0科 5 1种 ,属蜘蛛纲的有蜘蛛目 1 0科 2 0种。用空间及时间生态位分析了害虫与天敌两个营养阶层间的关系。稻田生态系统节肢动物的多样性指数、均匀度与优势度分析表明 ,各类群落受外界干扰都很敏感 ,且表现一致性。依据节肢动物群落的结构及规律 ,结合沈阳地区水稻生长、栽培条件 ,用最优分割方法将稻田群落分为 4个阶段 ,并提出不同阶段害虫群落特点及害虫防治对策

The niche breadth and niche overlap of four pests on the same trophic level (cruciferous plants) were estimated with Levins index and Pianka's measure in three dimensions: trophic level, time and spatial resources array. The results show that the four species: the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella, the cabbage butterfly Pieris rapae, the striped flea beetle Phyllotreta striolata and the vegetable beetle Phaedon brassicae are able to coexist in competition.

以Levins生态位宽度指数和Pianka生态位重叠指数估计发生在同一营养阶层的 4种主要十字花科植物害虫营养生态位、时间生态位和空间生态位的生态位宽度和重叠度。结果表明小菜蛾、黄曲条跳甲、菜粉蝶和小猿叶甲 4种昆虫的生态位并不完全重叠。

The results of control tests and phytochemistry analysis show that volatiles and allelochemicals affect host selection behavior of Nilaparvata lugens. It is similar to the role of nutriment. But the mechanism of their affecting host selection is different. Hunting food behavior of natural enemy depends on information from various trophic levels, especially chemical information. Chemical information is from host insect, plant or their interactions and other species relating to host insect. Above all, chemical...

The results of control tests and phytochemistry analysis show that volatiles and allelochemicals affect host selection behavior of Nilaparvata lugens. It is similar to the role of nutriment. But the mechanism of their affecting host selection is different. Hunting food behavior of natural enemy depends on information from various trophic levels, especially chemical information. Chemical information is from host insect, plant or their interactions and other species relating to host insect. Above all, chemical information of host plant is important to attract natural enemy. Attracting role of Rice volatiles induced by Nilaparvata lugens is obvious. Anagrus nilaparvatae also depends on chemical pheromone of Nilaparvata lugens to seek host. But it needs further research that the components of chemical pheromone and their role.

控制实验与植物化学分析结果表明水稻挥发性物质和其它一些次生代谢物影响稻飞虱的寄主选择。水稻营养物质有类似作用,但它们的作用机理不同。天敌搜寻食物的行为依赖于来自不同营养阶层上的信息,化学信息起重要作用。在天敌选择寄主的过程中起作用的化学信息来自于寄主昆虫、食料植物或两者的相互作用,以及与寄主昆虫有联系的其它生物。其中来自寄主植物的化学信息非常重要。褐飞虱诱导的水稻挥发物对稻虱缨小蜂具有明显的引诱作用。稻虱缨小蜂同样依赖于稻飞虱的化学信息素来寻找寄主。

 
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