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森林物候
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     The seasonal change in the Bowen ratio appeared 'U' shaped,and the annual β averaged 0.72.During the non-growing season,soil heat flux(G) was acted as the incoming components of energy balance equation,which was about 5.0% to the available energy.
     波文比β近似呈U字型变化,其值受森林物候变化影响显著,在非生长季平均值约为3.0,生长季为0.5左右。 土壤热通量(G)在非生长季表现为能量平衡方程的收入项,约占有效能量的5.0%;
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     Phenological analysis of main tree species in Shenyang urban forest.
     沈阳城市森林常见树种的物候特征
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     Forests——A Book from Heaven
     森林是天书
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     The View of Forest Value
     森林的价值观
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     Reproductive Phenology of Warm Temperate Forest Community in Confucius Cemetery,Qufu
     曲阜孔林暖温带森林群落生殖物候初探
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     (2) Phenophase.
     (2)物候表现。
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As a part of the ChinaFlux program,components of energy balance fluxes were measured continuously over a broad-leaved Korean pine forest in northeastern China from January to December in 2003.Sensible fluxes(H) and latent heat fluxes(LE) were measured using the eddy covariance technique.The net radiation(Rn) was influenced by both solar altitude and synoptic weather changes.The yearly average intensity of Rn was 72.1 W/m~2,the minimum value of monthly average intensity was appeared in December and the maximum...

As a part of the ChinaFlux program,components of energy balance fluxes were measured continuously over a broad-leaved Korean pine forest in northeastern China from January to December in 2003.Sensible fluxes(H) and latent heat fluxes(LE) were measured using the eddy covariance technique.The net radiation(Rn) was influenced by both solar altitude and synoptic weather changes.The yearly average intensity of Rn was 72.1 W/m~2,the minimum value of monthly average intensity was appeared in December and the maximum was in June,with the values of 5.8 W/m~2and 127.0 W/m~2,respectively.In growing season,the energy components were dominated by upward latent heat flux(LE).About 60% of Rn was used in evapotranspiration,which resulted in an average daily Bowen ratio(β) of 0.5.This contrasted dramatically with non-growing season,when was dominated by upward sensible heat flux(H),and nearly 72% of Rn was used in sensible heat transformation,which resulted in an average daily β of 3.0.The accumulated LE was 1.2×10~9 J/(m~2·a),accounting for 52% of the net radiation.The annual precipitation was 558mm;comparing with 493mm of evapotranspiration,the result showed that more than 88% of water was returned to the atmosphere through evapotranspiration.The seasonal change in the Bowen ratio appeared 'U' shaped,and the annual β averaged 0.72.During the non-growing season,soil heat flux(G) was acted as the incoming components of energy balance equation,which was about 5.0% to the available energy.While during the growing season,it turned to consumer,which was about 4.0% to the available energy.The magnitude and direction of G were generally influenced by soil temperature profile and leaf area index(LAI).Energy balance closure averaged 86% on a half-hourly basis with all dataset.

采用涡度相关法,结合小气候观测,对东北阔叶红松林的能量平衡特征进行了研究。结果表明,森林全年获得的辐射能量为2.3×109J/m2,平均净辐射(Rn)强度为72.1 W/m2,12月最小,平均为5.8W/m2,6月最大,平均为127 W/m2。除了受太阳高度角的支配,Rn对中小尺度天气变化响应显著。非生长季,森林主要能量支出项为感热通量(H),约占Rn的72%,H最大值出现在5月份;生长季,主要能量支出项为潜热通量(LE),约占Rn的60%,LE最大值出现在7月份。全年因蒸散消耗的能量为1.2×109J/m2,占净辐射的52%,森林蒸散的水量为493mm,占降水量的88%。波文比β近似呈U字型变化,其值受森林物候变化影响显著,在非生长季平均值约为3.0,生长季为0.5左右。土壤热通量(G)在非生长季表现为能量平衡方程的收入项,约占有效能量的5.0%;生长季表现为支出项,约占有效能量的4.0%,其变化过程与土壤温度梯度及叶面积指数密切相关。长白山通量观测站能量平衡收支闭合度为86%,不闭合的原因有待于进一步的研究。

Phenology is the study of recurring vegetation cycles and their connection to surrounding environmental factors such as climate,hydrology,soil,etc.Phenological records provide an integrative indication of the sensitivity of natural systems to climate changes and have a clear added value to climate impact assessment.Regional forest phenology is important in ecosystem simulation models and coupled biosphere/atmosphere models.The principal advantage of remote sensing data compared to traditional observations in...

Phenology is the study of recurring vegetation cycles and their connection to surrounding environmental factors such as climate,hydrology,soil,etc.Phenological records provide an integrative indication of the sensitivity of natural systems to climate changes and have a clear added value to climate impact assessment.Regional forest phenology is important in ecosystem simulation models and coupled biosphere/atmosphere models.The principal advantage of remote sensing data compared to traditional observations in the field is the possibility they offer to gather synoptic information at regular time intervals over large areas.Repeated observations from satellite-borne sensors can be used to monitor phenological dynamics at regional level.Northeastern China has abundant tree species and a variety of forest types,including evergreen conifer forest,deciduous conifer forest,deciduous broadleaf forest,and mixed forests.It is a suitable area to study forest phenology of China.To study forest phenology individually,the forest region of Northeast China was extracted from the whole Northeast China region based on the 1∶(100 000) Land Use Map of China for 2000 which interpreted from Landsat-7 ETM+ images.This paper describes the application of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer(MODIS) NDVI time series data for forest phenological pattern in Northeastern China.The time series data of 500m MODIS NDVI were inferred from 8-day MODIS surface reflectance datasets,2003.The daily MODIS NDVI data were got from 8-day MODIS NDVI data after processing by Harmonic Analysis of Time Series(HANTS).The dynamic threshold method was used to extract three key forest phenophases,which are the start of growing season(SOS),end of growing season(EOS) and growing season length(GSL) based on the daily MODIS NDVI data.The start dates of growing season in Northeast China focus on 100th~150th day.This is consistent with the period of tree leaf unfolding in spring.The end dates of growing season focus on 260th~290th day.It is corresponding with the period of defoliation in the fall.The growing season length mainly ranges from 140 to180 days.The forest phenological variables inferred from MODIS data are related to the distribution of forest types.In Daxinganling forest region,which located in north of Northeast China,the dominant forest types are deciduous species such as larch,birch et al.The growing season begins later and ends earlier.The length of growing season is short.In Xiaoxinganling and Changbaishan forest regions,located in southeast of Northeast China,the dominant forest are evergreen species such as Korean pine,spruce,fir etc.The growing season begins earlier and ends later.The length of growing season is longer than that of deciduous tree species.Then the derived phenophases were validated by previous research achievements in the same area.Results indicate that forest phenophases from MODIS NDVI data is feasible.

物候是指示气候与自然环境变化的重要指标。遥感技术的发展为物候监测和研究提供了新的手段。本文研究对象是中国东北森林,森林分布范围由Landsat TM影像解译得到的2000年土地利用数据确定。遥感数据源是2003年500m空间分辨率的MODIS NDVI 8天合成时间序列数据。通过分析东北主要森林树种的NDVI时间序列特征,表明不同树种的同一遥感参数时间序列基本形状近似,在关键物候期和变化振幅上存在差异,这为根据遥感参数时间序列曲线监测森林物候期奠定了理论基础。将MODIS NDVI 8天合成时间序列数据应用时间序列谐波分析法(HANTS)重构成每天的NDVI时间序列数据影像。基于每天的NDVI时间序列数据,研究采用动态阈值法获取了东北森林物候期及其空间分布格局。研究表明东北大部分地区树木在第100天~150天开始生长,到第260天~290天逐渐停止生长,生长季长度集中在140天~180天。通过与部分物候观测数据的比较验证,表明基于MODIS NDVI数据获取的树木生长始末日期与调查资料具有可比性,获取的森林物候期具有一定的可靠性。

 
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