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  southern dynasties
Although a split and turbulent age, the Wei, Jin, and Northern and Southern dynasties, known as the Six dynasties, witnessed a continuous expansion of waterway communication and transportation between north and south China.
      
Analysis shows that the main flooding periods in the studied region in the last 2000 years were the Western Jin Dynasty, Eastern Jin Dynasty, Northern and Southern Dynasties, Southern Song Dynasty, Yuan Dynasty, Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty.
      
Among them, 21.05% were abandoned during the Northern and Southern Dynasties, 21.05% during the end of the Tang Dynasty and the Five Dynasties, and 57.9% during the Ming and Qing dynasties.
      
They were Northern and Southern Dynasties, the end of Tang Dynasty and Five Dynasties, the Ming and Qing dynasties.
      
The statistical results show that all the sherds can be classified into 5 groups: (1) Eastern Han and Eastern Wu; (2) Western Jin, Eastern Jin and Southern Dynasties; (3) Sui; (4) Early Tang and Middle Tang; (5) Late Tang and Five Dynasties.
      
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  southern dynasty
The composition of the parts of 125-85 cm and 85-38 cm presented the warm climate in the Northern and Southern Dynasty and Sui and Tang dynasties.
      
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The word "Jingzhe" was first mentiond by Xie Lingyun the poet of the southern Dynasty, and appeared several times in Dufu's poems,"Renzhejing"in Lishan's note to"Jingzhe" in the selected works from "Lunyu"meant that "Jingzhe" was the benevoent. In another note by Huangjie in the notes to Xie Lingyun's poems the"Jingzhe"was explained as hermit according to Laozi. The person Hong mai, of the southern Song thought of "Jingzhe" as "Jingyinzhe" and Guo Moro as a scholar.Referring to Dufu's poems and analysing Xie's...

The word "Jingzhe" was first mentiond by Xie Lingyun the poet of the southern Dynasty, and appeared several times in Dufu's poems,"Renzhejing"in Lishan's note to"Jingzhe" in the selected works from "Lunyu"meant that "Jingzhe" was the benevoent. In another note by Huangjie in the notes to Xie Lingyun's poems the"Jingzhe"was explained as hermit according to Laozi. The person Hong mai, of the southern Song thought of "Jingzhe" as "Jingyinzhe" and Guo Moro as a scholar.Referring to Dufu's poems and analysing Xie's life and thoughts, the author holds that "Jingzhe" should be considered as the retired benevolent.

“静者”一语,为南朝诗人谢灵运所始创。至唐代,在杜甫诗中又多次出现。《文选》李善注引《论语》“仁者静”,意思是静者即仁者。近人黄节《谢灵运诗注》又引《老子》“归根曰静”,意思是静者即隐者。南宋洪迈以之为“静隐者”,而今人郭沫若则说成是“有思想的人”。笔者结合谢灵运的身世、思想加以考察,并参酌杜甫诗中的用意,提出静者的意思应当是“归隐的仁者”。

Abstract This paper re-expounds causes for the literary divergences in the Northern and Southern Dynasties according to the social and religious development and the scholar-bureaucrats' beliefs of the period. The paper argues that the Han scholar-bureaucrats in the north, faced with sharp racial conflicts, tended to believe Taoism which strongly influenced their literary creation bearing the property of primitive simplicity and that there was not so serious estrangement between different tribes in the south...

Abstract This paper re-expounds causes for the literary divergences in the Northern and Southern Dynasties according to the social and religious development and the scholar-bureaucrats' beliefs of the period. The paper argues that the Han scholar-bureaucrats in the north, faced with sharp racial conflicts, tended to believe Taoism which strongly influenced their literary creation bearing the property of primitive simplicity and that there was not so serious estrangement between different tribes in the south and the southern scholar bureaucrats turned to Buddhism one after another, so their thoughts bore a strong mark of pompous Buddhist culture. The paper proposes a more comprehensive and scientific exploration of the literary divergences in the Northern and Southern Dynasties.

本文从两晋南北朝时期社会宗教发展的特点和当时士族宗教信仰的状况,重新论证了此期南北文学产生差异的原因。本文认为,两晋南北朝时期北方的汉人士族面对极为尖锐的民族矛盾,多持守本土固有的天师道信仰,故其文学带有浓厚质直古朴的道教文化色彩;南朝本不存在北方那种严重的夷夏隔阂,广大士族文人因玄学清谈余习而日渐偏尚佛理,乃至纷纷弃道皈佛,因而其思想文化明显打上了外来佛教文化浮华丽靡的烙印。最后,作者指出,对于南北朝文学中存在的南北文学的差异,应该以马克思主义文艺学中的“合力论”作更全面、深入和科学的考察

Chinese landscape poems derive from some sentences and phrases in (Book of Songs ) and (Analects of Confucius ) which function as stimulants to the poems. They appeared in an embryonic form in (The Ballad of Autumn Wind) written 13y Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty (Han Wudi) and (Viewing the Deep Blue Sea ) written by Cao Cao. In the period of Six Dynasties they began to form the regular patterns which have been handed down and carried on since then in the Jin Dynasty there was Tao Yuanming; in the Song Dynasty...

Chinese landscape poems derive from some sentences and phrases in (Book of Songs ) and (Analects of Confucius ) which function as stimulants to the poems. They appeared in an embryonic form in (The Ballad of Autumn Wind) written 13y Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty (Han Wudi) and (Viewing the Deep Blue Sea ) written by Cao Cao. In the period of Six Dynasties they began to form the regular patterns which have been handed down and carried on since then in the Jin Dynasty there was Tao Yuanming; in the Song Dynasty (one of the Southern Dynasties ) Xie Lingyun; in the Qi Dynasty Xie Tiao. And they came to the peak by poems of powerful and free style written by Li flat (in the Tang Dynasty ) and poems of the Buddist Happiness Style by Wang Wei (also Tang Dynasty). Then they arc characterized by Su Shi's grand and heroic style and Lu You's lonely and desolate in the Song Dynasty. But they became limited in their extent in the Yuan Dynasty, which caused the landscape painter's interest in the poems. Then they were used to reflect the Tang and Song to satisfy the emotional need by the Ming and Qing Dynasty's poets of whom I.i Panlong (in Ming Dynasty ), Wu Meicun and Wang Shizheng (Qing Dynasty) make their respective contributions to the poems. From all of the above stated, we can conclude that the mountains and waters have "created" those famous poets through the ages and made them to intone the beauty of the nature, thus we can appreciate and analyze the aesthetic characteristics.

中国山水诗萌芽于《诗经》与《论语》的某些章句,功能是为了诗的起兴。汉武帝的《秋风辞》,曹操的《观沧海》等已得山水诗的雏形,到六朝已形成玄言诗与山水诗的固定形式,并流传有序,历代继承下来。晋有陶渊明;南朝宋有谢灵运,齐有谢;唐代李白的豪放、王维的禅悦是中国山水诗的顶峰;宋代苏拭的清雄,陆游的苍凉;至元已觉局面狭窄,引起山水画家诗的勃兴;明清的山水诗境界狭小,部分折射唐宋,满足其感情世界,明代李攀龙、清代吴梅村和王世正各有建树。因山水而造就了的历代诗人,又引起对山水诗的咏叹,本文并探讨了这些山水诗的美学特征。

 
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