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外部作用     
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  external action
     Taking Chaobai River Bridge in Jingcheng Expressway as the engineering background, the article introduces the selection process of 3-phlon partial cable-stayed bridge structural system, and through the numerical analysis, compares the reactions of the different structural systems under the external action, and uses the measures using damper to reduce the earthquake effect of the structure.
     该文以京承高速公路潮白河大桥为工程背景,介绍了三塔部分斜拉桥结构体系的选择过程,并通过数值分析比较了不同结构体系在外部作用下的反应,以及采用阻尼器降低结构地震效应的措施。
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  external actions
     In the view of tectonic,the earth′s lithosphere is in nonequilibrium state because of the external actions.
     地质运动原因是由于外部作用的存在使得地壳处于不平衡状态。
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  external function
     Its dynamics originates from the essential characters which have been existing in the city, the order and the ability of the system toward the external function. Its correlative influence factor is the progression and development of the society and technology, the increase of urban economy and administrative policy. Making a comprehensive view of the whole process of the increase of the world economy, the urban growth and the urban economy and administrative policy.
     城市发展和城市开发是一个渐进的、持续的过程,其动力来源于城市存在的本质特征和系统对外部作用的秩序和能力,其相关的影响因素是社会和科技的进步和发展、城市经济的增长以及政府的决策。
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     But the actuality is not optimist, the school-age girls of the western region demonstrates the serious unfairness phenomenon in such aspects as the school attendance rate, dropping out of school rate and so on. The reasons mainly has three mechanisms, these are external function mechanism, interior mechanism and historical action mechanism.
     但是现实不容乐观,西部地区女童在适龄儿童入学率指标、辍学率指标等方面显示出了严重的不公平现象,造成这种现象的原因主要存在三个作用机制,即外部作用机制,内部作用机制和历史作用机制。
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  “外部作用”译为未确定词的双语例句
     A Monopolistic Market Model with Discrete Strategies and External Interaction on Complex Networks
     复杂网络上具有离散策略和外部作用的垄断市场模型
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     Design of the Financial Ecosystem and Study of Its Function Mechanism
     金融生态圈构建及内外部作用机理研究
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     Conclusion: Any external force which could cause shear or tensile strain to the axons of the brain would DAI induce.
     结论:凡能使脑的神经纤维受到广泛剪力和(或)张力的任何形式的外部作用均可产生DAI。
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     Confucius' literature thought consists of five theories. The theory of the beautiful and the good starts the tradition of literal writing and criticism with political purposes in ancient China.
     孔子的文学思想包括五个方面:其“美、善”说从功利主义的角度开启了中国古代以政治功利为目的的文学创作与文学批评传统,但它只片面地强调文学的外部作用,而忽略了文学内部规律的研究;
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     Chapter three divides the formation of "Urban Mixed Community" andstudies the characteristic and mechanism of its development on macroscopic level.
     第三章从宏观层面划分城市混合居住社区的形成,并研究其发展特征与内外部作用机制。
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      external action
    Two problems-design of a system which has one degree of freedom is robust at most to the variations of the external action and design of the elastic characteristic of the undercarriage of a landing craft-were solved by way of example.
          
    The dependences of the rheological properties of three-phase systems on the concentration of the solid dispersed phase in a liquid dispersion medium are established during the process of compaction at various parameters of external action.
          
    It is shown that in the case of a harmonically modulated field either quasiperiodic perturbations or perturbations synchronous with the external action may be the most dangerous.
          
    General scenarios of the transition of oscillations to chaos, as well as particularities of their behavior in the autonomous operating mode and under external action, are determined.
          
    Scaling dependences of the domain size and the deformation amplitude on the intensity of external action and the preliminary tension of the layer are plotted.
          
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      external actions
    An optimal control enables balancing the expenditures for the operation (effectiveness) and for the restructurization (the stability to external actions).
          
    Consideration was given to the characteristics of the power plants for which the control systems invariant in input and deviation to external actions can be designed.
          
    The regularities of transition of the three-phase (S-L-G) to two-phase (S-L) disperse systems are considered under the conditions of external actions (a combination of oscillation and pressure).
          
    The effect of the character of the interaction of dispersed phase particles, as well as of a number of parameters concerning the type and intensity of external actions on the behavior of disperse systems is shown.
          
    Within the framework of the quasione-dimensional approximation given below [4] the movement of liquid along a viscoelastic tube in the presence of small amplitude periodic external actions has been studied.
          
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      external function
    Internalism is an explanatory strategy that makes the internal structure and constitution of the organism a basis for the investigation of its external function and the ways in which it is embedded in an environment.
          
    It is opposed to an externalist explanatory strategy, which takes its departure from observations about external function and mind-environment interactions, and infers and rationalizes internal organismic structure from that.
          
    Dissipative functions are introduced into these models: the external function describing the motion of the bases in a solvent and the function describing the internal friction in the molecule.
          
    The study also highlighted more fundamental conceptual difficulties, such as response shift and the respondent's conflict between scoring external function and internal distress (what they did, vs.
          
    We show that in this case there exists an external function selecting one representative from each equivalence class if and only if the relation in question coincides up to translation and dilation with the relation of infinite proximity.
          
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    This article gives a brief outline of a new field of scientific investigations, which is being intensively engaged by international scientific community of various disciplines and concerned by the people all over the world,now enti-tled"Earth System Science".Its advent is a consequnce of the urgent need to meet the challenge imposed by the severe crises of the deteriorating fundamental living environment of mankind-the earth's global change. Earth System Sciene regards the earth as an integrate system composed...

    This article gives a brief outline of a new field of scientific investigations, which is being intensively engaged by international scientific community of various disciplines and concerned by the people all over the world,now enti-tled"Earth System Science".Its advent is a consequnce of the urgent need to meet the challenge imposed by the severe crises of the deteriorating fundamental living environment of mankind-the earth's global change. Earth System Sciene regards the earth as an integrate system composed of various interacting components (atmosphere, lithosphere,biosphere, hydrosphere etc.), which are subject to both natural external variations and the impact of mankind's activities. The goal of the Earth System Science is to obtain a scientific understanding of the entire Earth System on a global scale by describing how its component parts and their interactions have evolved, how they function, and how they may be expected to continue to evolve on all time scales, thereby to enhance the predicative ability on the variation trend of the living environment of mankind, particularly the variations over decades to a century in future. The Earth System Science will be one of the most grandiose scientific career of mankind at the end of 20th century and over the whole 21st century. Scientists working in the field of mechanics can and ought to make their due contributions in it.

    本文简介了近年来国际上兴起的地球系统科学。地球系统科学是应人类面临的基本生存环境危机——全球变化的严重挑战而兴起。它把地球看作由相互作用着的各组元(如大气圈、土壤-岩石圈、生物圈、水圈等)组成的统一系统,研究这些组元及相互作用是如何进行和如何演化的,以及系统对于外部作用变化及人类活动是如何响应的,从而提高人类对于自身赖以生存的地球环境在未来,特别是未来数十年至100年时间尺度上变化趋势的预言能力。地球系统科学将是20世纪末、21世纪人类最宏大的科学事业之一,广大力学工作者应该而且能够在其中作出自己应有的贡献。

    Objective: To observe on linear acceleration force on the traumatic changes of the brain, especially on the evolution of the diffuse axonal injury (DAI) in cats. Methods: An impact device to deliver a linear acceleration force was used to set up head injured models in 26 cats. Results: The axonal retraction balls (ARB) were invisible within 24 hours after trauma, but often occurred 24 hours later. The ARB showed classic and a large amount after 72 hours, and still remained somewhat in 7 day. Conclusion: Any...

    Objective: To observe on linear acceleration force on the traumatic changes of the brain, especially on the evolution of the diffuse axonal injury (DAI) in cats. Methods: An impact device to deliver a linear acceleration force was used to set up head injured models in 26 cats. Results: The axonal retraction balls (ARB) were invisible within 24 hours after trauma, but often occurred 24 hours later. The ARB showed classic and a large amount after 72 hours, and still remained somewhat in 7 day. Conclusion: Any external force which could cause shear or tensile strain to the axons of the brain would DAI induce.

    目的:为了解直线加速度在颅脑损伤特别是在弥漫性轴突损伤(DAI)中的作用。方法:用一套撞击装置对26只猫进行实验。结果:直线加速度可以导致几乎所有类型的颅脑损伤,包括颅骨骨折、蛛网膜下腔出血、硬膜下血肿、硬膜外血肿、脑挫伤、脑干损伤,特别是DAI。DAI的特征性改变-轴突回缩球在24小时内死亡的动物脑标本中看不到,24小时后可见到,72小时则多而典型,7天时仍然存在。结论:凡能使脑的神经纤维受到广泛剪力和(或)张力的任何形式的外部作用均可产生DAI。

    Urban growth and urban development is a gradual and sustainable process. Its dynamics originates from the essential characters which have been existing in the city, the order and the ability of the system toward the external function. Its correlative influence factor is the progression and development of the society and technology, the increase of urban economy and administrative policy. Making a comprehensive view of the whole process of the increase of the world economy, the urban growth and the urban economy...

    Urban growth and urban development is a gradual and sustainable process. Its dynamics originates from the essential characters which have been existing in the city, the order and the ability of the system toward the external function. Its correlative influence factor is the progression and development of the society and technology, the increase of urban economy and administrative policy. Making a comprehensive view of the whole process of the increase of the world economy, the urban growth and the urban economy and administrative policy. Making a comprehensive view of the whole process of the increase of the world economy, the urban growth and the urban development since the industrial civilization, we can find the interior relations with the world long-term economic circle. The fundamental urge is the revolution of technology, technique and industry. Investigating the relations among the theory of long-term economic circle, the urban growth and the urban development will contribute us to analyze and grasp the basic rules of urban growth and urban development objectively. And we will guide our urban growth in a sustainable, healthy, steady and harmony state during the whole global unify.

    城市发展和城市开发是一个渐进的、持续的过程,其动力来源于城市存在的本质特征和系统对外部作用的秩序和能力,其相关的影响因素是社会和科技的进步和发展、城市经济的增长以及政府的决策。综观工业文明以来世界经济增长、城市发展和城市开发的全过程,无不与世界经济长波之间存在互动的、内在的联系,其根本性的推动力就是科技革命、技术革命和产业革命,研究经济长波理论与城市发展和城市开发的关系有助于我们客观地分析和把握城市发展和开发的基本规律,更好地引导城市在全球一体化的进程中持续、健康、稳定、协调地向前发展。

     
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