In the context of field observations at Shentou (112°17′ E, 39°18′ S) in September～October 1988, calculation is carried out of frictional velocity, characteristic temperature and turbulent momentum flux, with turbulent heat flux dealt with by two methods.

The comparisons and analysis of turbulent flux between NCEP reanalysis data and buoy data show that NCEP momentum flux and recalculated NCEP heat flux can represent the effect of numerical simulation of NCEP reanalysis database better.

the relative error of recalculated momentum flux is smaller in the middle-high wind speed range,but the largest relative error of recalculated momentum,sensible and latent heat fluxes are about 50% in the other conditions.

Based on the velocity remapping strategy of the SALE algorithm,three methods are proposed to improve the accuracy and monotonicity of momentum flux calculation on a 1D staggered grid: the SUR method which employs the upwind-type slope and a repairing procedure;

This model solves the set of prognostic equations of horizontal components of the wind, the potential temperature, specific humidity, an energy balance equation, and a soil heat conduction equation, to obtain the ground surface temperature, the surface flux of momentum, sensible heat, and latent heat. These fluxes are then used to calculate refractive index structure parameter by empirical relationships of turbulence flux and temperature structure parameter according to MoninObukhov similarity theory.

The PIV experimental study shows that for f=400 Hz,the momentum flux of the self-coupling jet achieves its maximum value,while the boundary of the primary jet reaches its maximum width due to the strongest suction ability to the environmental gas.

In a two-layer model with a lower unstable boundary layer and an upper stable layer, the waves in the upper layer induced by a two-dimensional terrain, as well as the momentum flux caused by the velocity disturbance in the lower layer are studied analytically It is shown that mountain waves still play significant role in the momentum budget in the atmosphere even though the lower layer is unstable

Based on the Ocean-Atmosphere Heat,Momentum and fresh water Climatological Flux Atlas of Southampton Oceanography Center,the climatology and seasonal variation characters of the heat,fresh water flux and the wind stress curl in China adjacent seas,which is computed from the momentum flux data,are analyzed and studied by EOF method and statistical methods.

The turbulent fluxes of momentum and heat, and statistics and spectra of wind speed fluctuations were calculated from the digital data sampled at rate of both 1s~(-1) and 11s~(-1) , using eddy correlation and FFT method.

The drag coefficient CD of momentum transfer is approximated by the expression 103 CD = 0.003U210+ 0.020U10 + 0.836. And vertical fluxes of momentum, latent and sensible heat obtained from the eddy correlation or profile method are shown with various statistical quantities of turbulence structure such as friction velocity u * and aerodynamic roughness height z0.

The law of conservation of the angular momentum flux during disintegration of a rotating jet is mathematically formulated and studied.

A solution is obtained, within the framework of the boundary layer theory, to the problem of the unsteady flow created by a two-dimensional jet source for a given momentum flux variation with time.

A study is made of the laminar flow of a viscous incompressible fluid in a swirling jet that is produced by the action of a point source which transmits to the medium surrounding it a finite momentum flux.

Measuring the momentum flux of molecules reflected from a surface of given roughness in free molecule flow

The equation is complemented by conservation laws for the mass flux and the momentum flux through the deflagration front of finite thickness.

Numerical results show that mechanical forcing overwhelms thermal forcing in maintaining the mean flow in which the internal mechanical forcing associated with horizontal eddy flux of momentum plays the most important roles.

The flux of momentum also exhibits similar features.

In both seasons the greatest oceanic flux of momentum is found in the region to the south of Greenland and Iceland.

The annual average vertical flux of momentum at temperate and high latitudes is -0.25 dyn cm-2, while the average kinetic energy dissipation rate in a unit column of atmosphere is -5 × 103 erg cm-2 s-1.

Consequently, the most probable values of vertical flux of momentum and heat may be estimated to satisfy as much as possible observed data of both wind and temperature simultaneously.

Measuring the momentum flux of molecules reflected from a surface of given roughness in free molecule flow

The equation is complemented by conservation laws for the mass flux and the momentum flux through the deflagration front of finite thickness.

The dependence of the variation in the depth of the upper mixed layer (MLD) on the governing parameters (the momentum flux, the buoyancy fluxes at the ocean surface, and the density gradient in the pycnocline) is considered.

It has been found that the effects of waves on currents can be expressed in terms of the momentum flux by waves.

Parametric variations characterizing the mixing processes of the temperature and velocity fields were examined and correlated in terms of the momentum flux ratio and downstream distance.

The surface fluxes of momentum, sensible heat and latent heat each day are further estimated by the bulk formulas, annual mean of these fluxes is 3.4×10-2 and 1.8×102N/m2, 73.1 and 67.2 W/m2, 15.4 and 2.9 W/m2, respectively.

Observation research of the turbulent fluxes of momentum, sensible heat and latent heat over the West Pacific Tropical Ocean Are

This paper describes results of the fluxes of momentum , sensible heat and latent heat for the West Pacific Tropical Ocean Area (127°E-150°E, 5°N-3°S).

The resulting highly coupled PDE system has been solved using the control volume based numerical approach where the power-law scheme was used extensively to compute the diffusive and convective fluxes of momentum.

Study on fluxes of momentum and sensible heat, the drag coefficientCd and roughnessZ0*

In this paper, the structures of wind and temperature fields and characteristics of meteorological parameters in surface layer are analysed utilizing a 325 m meteorological tower in Beijing. The vertical shear of wind velocity, acceleration of horizontal wind velocity, vertical wind velocity, stream function, and fluxes of heat and momentum etc. are computed. The emphasis has been put on the study of the structure of wind field of thunderstorm density current. It is shown that the pressure, wind direction, wind...

In this paper, the structures of wind and temperature fields and characteristics of meteorological parameters in surface layer are analysed utilizing a 325 m meteorological tower in Beijing. The vertical shear of wind velocity, acceleration of horizontal wind velocity, vertical wind velocity, stream function, and fluxes of heat and momentum etc. are computed. The emphasis has been put on the study of the structure of wind field of thunderstorm density current. It is shown that the pressure, wind direction, wind velocity and temperature in surface layer show significant variation when the thunderstorm density current passing. In addition, it is confirmed that the severe gust surges and the strong vertical motions existed in the thunderstorm density current. Moreover, the region where meteorological parameters show greatest variation is at the head of the density current. The largest vertical shear of wind velocity and strongest downdraft are at the rear of the head and the largest horizontal wind velocity acceleration and strongest updraft are at the front of the head. All these are very detrimental for taking off and landing of aeroplane.

The stationary planetary waves responding to forcing by the northern hemispheric topography and stationary heat souces in winter are investigated by means of a quasi-geostrophic, steady state, 34-level model, with Rayleigh friction, the effect of Newtonian cooling and the horizontal kinematic thermal diffusivity included in a spherical coordinate system.The momentum and heat fluxes due to stationary planetary waves responding to forcing are computed, and are qualitatively in good agreement with the observed...

The stationary planetary waves responding to forcing by the northern hemispheric topography and stationary heat souces in winter are investigated by means of a quasi-geostrophic, steady state, 34-level model, with Rayleigh friction, the effect of Newtonian cooling and the horizontal kinematic thermal diffusivity included in a spherical coordinate system.The momentum and heat fluxes due to stationary planetary waves responding to forcing are computed, and are qualitatively in good agreement with the observed results.The computed results show that the poleward momentum and heat flux in the stratosphere has a maximum, respectively.

The envelope orography scheme developed by Wallace et. al.has been shown to improve medium-range weather forecasts of ECMWF. Their numerical experiment data are used for this research. Verifications include zonal mean westerly wind, temperature and meridional circulation, mean meridional flux of angular momentum due to meridional circulations and planetary and synoptic scale eddies. Results show that the introduction of this scheme improves predictions of zonal temperature and wind fields in tropical troposphere,...

The envelope orography scheme developed by Wallace et. al.has been shown to improve medium-range weather forecasts of ECMWF. Their numerical experiment data are used for this research. Verifications include zonal mean westerly wind, temperature and meridional circulation, mean meridional flux of angular momentum due to meridional circulations and planetary and synoptic scale eddies. Results show that the introduction of this scheme improves predictions of zonal temperature and wind fields in tropical troposphere, and simulates better the total eddy angular momentum flux. However predictions of synoptic scale systems and parameterizations of tropical (Convection and culmulus friction have to be improved further.