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This paper describes the dredging practice in excavating navigation channel and foundation trench for marine work with cutter suction dredger.From the dredging practice with dredger "Nanhai" for a period of more then 10 years, it may be said that the planning of excavation, the control of the depth, the width of the cut and the advancing distance of the dredger are the principal items of quality control for the excavation. The planning of excavation is founded on working scheme.With the working conditions and...

This paper describes the dredging practice in excavating navigation channel and foundation trench for marine work with cutter suction dredger.From the dredging practice with dredger "Nanhai" for a period of more then 10 years, it may be said that the planning of excavation, the control of the depth, the width of the cut and the advancing distance of the dredger are the principal items of quality control for the excavation. The planning of excavation is founded on working scheme.With the working conditions and the characteristics of dredger being taken into consideration, the cut layer and the cut width of the channel should be decided in accordance with the profile of the cross-section designed by step excavation.Generally, in the upper half of the section the thickness of cut in each layer is about 2m, while the lower half about 1m.Besides, in the design a temporary side slope must be taken into consideration.In addition, method of dredging at river bend is given in the report too. For depth control, the center of suction head is assumed to be the zero datum of the indicating gauge, which is mounted on the ladder hoist.The dredging master can take the gauge reading directly so as to enable him to adjust the suction head to the required depth, and then checks the depth by trial dredging. The width of cut is controlled by observation marks set along the left and right side of the centerline of the cut channel.The distance between right and left marks is calculated from the width of the cut and the related dimensions of the dredger.When the suction head moves up to the margin of the cut and the master working stand is keeping in line with the left or the right mark, it means that the desired width is obtained.Dredging at shallow waters, auxiliary marks may be set on the edge of cut.Advancing movement of the dredger can be controlled by a horizontal scale mounted at the "A" frame.The horizontal scale is marked with corresponding values of the advancing distances of dredger.When the dredger swings to the point where the master's stand, the advancing distance marked on scale and the centerline of the cut keep on a line, the left or the right spud can be immediately lowered down.Thereby, the dredger moves forward to the desired position. Finally, the dredging operation can be summed up as: "Start the cut at center, then cut layer by layer, and finish with a thinner layer".Meanwhile, the dredging master should pay great attention to the variations of water level, thickness of dredged soil and dredger advancing distance, and then control the dredger movements accordingly with the winches.Thus, a better quality and a higher output of dredging could be obtained.

本文着重介绍“南海号”挖泥船十三年来开挖水工建筑物基槽的施工经验.实践证明,控制挖槽质量的关键,主要在于作好挖槽施工展布,深度、宽度、前移距控制和施工操作等方面的工作. 挖槽施工展布主要在作好挖槽施工设计.深度控制是以吸嘴中心为水尺零点,在绞刀吊架上安装水尺,由驾驶员直接观测,以确定绞刀下放深度,并通过试挖验测予以校正。宽度是利用视线标志来进行控制;在较浅的河道施工时也可采用插边线竿的办法.前移距是利用“横尺”方法来控制. 在施工操作方面,总结出“中间切入,分层开挖,最后一层薄”的操作方法.同吋,还提出了驾驶人员必须掌握水位涨落的变化、泥面厚度的变化、前移距大小的变化以及灵活換边和灵活掌握绞车等四个操作规律,以便更好的控制工程质量和有效地提高挖泥效率。

 
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