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  scientific methodology
However, evidence supporting this association has been limited because few studies with rigorous scientific methodology have been conducted.
      
Both historical and contemporary sex policing efforts suffer from the lack of scientific methodology and faulty reasoning regarding causality, as in the revival of prepsychoanalytic Freudian infantile seduction theory.
      
We explore the way in which critical aspects of scientific methodology make their appearance in the upscaling context, thus generating useful effective parameters in practice.
      
The Application of Scientific Methodology to a Contemporary Sports Journal
      
These team-based courses were designed to promote an understanding of scientific methodology and to refine field research and team skills.
      
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  science methodology
Fifth international conference on social science methodology research committee on logic and methodology (RC33) International So
      
China has a growing "superaging" population, known colloquially as a "tiger behind." This phenomenon has been traditionally analyzed by conventional social science methodology as a question of resource allocation to a burgeoning elderly population.
      
In the development of regional science methodology we observe an increasing series of trends from aggregate towards disaggregate, deterministic towards probabilistic and static towards dynamic modes of reasoning.
      
Some implications of the logical calculus for empirical classes for social science methodology
      
A new methodology has to be developed when dealing with these data, based on a combination of social science methodology and traditional archival descriptions.
      
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  methodology of science
Moreover, it is particularly beneficial for the methodology of science to study sample analysis and model construction using the examples from Analytical Chemistry.
      
The typology of scientific research is of considerable importance for the development of the methodology of science.
      
We take a "procedural methodology of science" as exemplified in the work of L.
      
Finally we point out some desiderata for the further discussion on methodology of science that would be the consequence of the acknowledgement of real bifurcations in scientific thought.
      
The Content of Science, The Methodology of Science and Hempel's Models of Explanation and Confirmation
      
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Founding Newton's mechanical System is an immortal milestone in scientific history. Newton not only inhenrited the predecessor's splendid results, but also tried some scientific methods, so he got very important achievements. Newton's outstanding contribution to the methods is founding new method to unite mathematical research and physical study. This method embodies the unity of both analysis with synthesis and induction with deduction. It is a crux that Newton exceeded forefathers and became the great master...

Founding Newton's mechanical System is an immortal milestone in scientific history. Newton not only inhenrited the predecessor's splendid results, but also tried some scientific methods, so he got very important achievements. Newton's outstanding contribution to the methods is founding new method to unite mathematical research and physical study. This method embodies the unity of both analysis with synthesis and induction with deduction. It is a crux that Newton exceeded forefathers and became the great master of scieace. As Newton's mechanics system was a comprehensive exprossion of achievements in mechanical research since 16th century, Newton's scientific method was also synthetical result of two methodological trend of the empiricism and the rationalism since the Renaissance. Only Catching this point, We can know that the unity of Newton's achievements and methods is inevitable of history. It is a logical result of scientific development oneself.

牛顿力学体系的创立,是科学史上的一座不朽丰碑。它不但是牛顿出色地继承前人科学成果的结晶,而且也是他在科学方法上大胆创新的产物。牛顿在科学方法上的突出贡献是,创立了数学和物理学研究相统一的新方法,这种研究方法很好地体现了分析与综合、归纳与演绎的统一。这也正是牛顿能够超过前人成长为科学的时代巨人的一个关键。正如同牛顿力学体系是十六世纪以来力学研究成果之集大成一样,牛顿的科学方法也是文艺复兴以来经验论和唯理论两大科学方法论潮流的历史性综合。只有认识到这一点,我们才能深刻领会牛顿的科学成就和科学方法的统一,是历史的必然,是由科学发展自身的逻辑决定的。

In the 20th century development of methodology experienced the following development stages. First, the stage of “making and testing hypotheses"; Second,Kuhn's idea of rejecting possibility of a common criterion for comparison of development of science at different stages, Feyerabend's idea of “whatever method will do", and Putnam's idea of circulation of theory and method; Thirdly, within the Western culture there exists a tendency of colonization of humanities by natural science, and an “anti colonization...

In the 20th century development of methodology experienced the following development stages. First, the stage of “making and testing hypotheses"; Second,Kuhn's idea of rejecting possibility of a common criterion for comparison of development of science at different stages, Feyerabend's idea of “whatever method will do", and Putnam's idea of circulation of theory and method; Thirdly, within the Western culture there exists a tendency of colonization of humanities by natural science, and an “anti colonization movement" against it by social humanitarian methodology. Finally, the author points out that how to transcend gradually from the defective “me" to the guiding “we", a concept leading to self perfection, will become a major theme for methodological research in the new century.

20世纪方法论主要经历了以下几个阶段:首先,从 大胆假设,小心求证"到 大胆假设,小心反驳";其次,库恩否定科学发展不同阶段之间进行比较评价的共同标准,法伊阿本德主张 什么都行",新实用主义者普特南主张理论和方法的相互循环;再次,西方文化内部存在着自然科学对社会一人文科学的殖民化,同时也出现了社会一人文科学方法论上的 非殖民化"运动。如何从以现实中的 小我"和 大我 "观之,逐渐过渡到始终作为理想而引导我们去自我改善的 我们"观之,将是新世纪科学方法论研究的主题

Feyeraberd's scientific methodology is in sharp contrast to the traditional view. He defended his theory by refuting “the principle of identical situations" and “independence of facts" supported by logic positivists. In doing so, he founded an anarchist conception of science on the basis of anarchist methodology. He then extends the meaning of the anarchist theory with his principle of “incomparability".

费耶阿本德提出了一种与传统看法截然对立的科学方法论论点——— 怎么都行"。他提出了 反规则",意指两种情形:一种是提出同公认的且又得到高度确认的理论不一致的假说,另一种是提出同完全确凿的事实不一致的假说。他通过反驳被逻辑实证主义者认为的 一致性条件"原理和 事实自立性"原则来确证自己的论点。由无政府主义方法论进而阐发了一种无政府主义的科学观。他提出了 不可比性"原理,扩展了无政府主义的含义

 
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