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科学方法论
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  scientific methodology
However, evidence supporting this association has been limited because few studies with rigorous scientific methodology have been conducted.
      
Both historical and contemporary sex policing efforts suffer from the lack of scientific methodology and faulty reasoning regarding causality, as in the revival of prepsychoanalytic Freudian infantile seduction theory.
      
We explore the way in which critical aspects of scientific methodology make their appearance in the upscaling context, thus generating useful effective parameters in practice.
      
The Application of Scientific Methodology to a Contemporary Sports Journal
      
These team-based courses were designed to promote an understanding of scientific methodology and to refine field research and team skills.
      
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  methodology of science
Moreover, it is particularly beneficial for the methodology of science to study sample analysis and model construction using the examples from Analytical Chemistry.
      
The typology of scientific research is of considerable importance for the development of the methodology of science.
      
We take a "procedural methodology of science" as exemplified in the work of L.
      
Finally we point out some desiderata for the further discussion on methodology of science that would be the consequence of the acknowledgement of real bifurcations in scientific thought.
      
The Content of Science, The Methodology of Science and Hempel's Models of Explanation and Confirmation
      
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F.P. Ramsey discovered that when second-order logic is applied to a scien-tific theory(T) which contains a finite number of axioms, the theoretical terms in T can be removed. By substituting T's axiom with Ramsey sentence,all the empirical consequences of T can be maintained. In a narrow sense, bydisregarding the meaning of the theoretical words, the Ramsey method providesa logic tactic in handling such words. In a broad, sense, the Ramsey methodgives stress on the description of the relationship between the...

F.P. Ramsey discovered that when second-order logic is applied to a scien-tific theory(T) which contains a finite number of axioms, the theoretical terms in T can be removed. By substituting T's axiom with Ramsey sentence,all the empirical consequences of T can be maintained. In a narrow sense, bydisregarding the meaning of the theoretical words, the Ramsey method providesa logic tactic in handling such words. In a broad, sense, the Ramsey methodgives stress on the description of the relationship between the objects whileignoring the explanation on the nature of the objects. This broad-sense under-standing of Ramsey method is odtained in this essay by comparing Ramseymethod with logical empiricism on the distinction between calculus and interpre-tation and by some research into the modern scientific methodology.

F·P·Ramsey(拉姆西)发现,应用二阶逻辑对一个有有限数目公理的科学理论T而言,T中的理论性词项可以被消除。将T的公理用Ramsey语句来代替可以保持T的所有的经验推论。狭义而言,Ramsey方法通过对理论性词项的意义存而不论,从而提供了一种处理该类词项的逻辑技巧;广义而论,Ramsey方法强调对对象之间的关系的描述,而对对象的本质的解释存而不论。本文通过比较Ramsey方法与逻辑经验主义对运算和解释的区分以及对近代科学方法论的若干思考而得到这一对Ramsey方法的广义理解。

The “judgmental experiment”is not only an important issue of modern scentific methodology but is also closely related to the criterion of practicre of Marxist epistemology.Based on a historical review of the judgmental experiment,this essay gives a brief introduction to the fundamental process in which it evolves from a scientific conviction to a philosophical issue.Finally,an analysis of it is made from the dual angles of the criterion of practice.

“判决性实验”既是现代科学方法论的一个重要问题 ,也与马克思主义认识论的实践标准问题密切相关。本文通过对“判决性实验”的历史考察 ,简略地介绍了它由科学信念嬗变为哲学问题的基本过程 ,尤其对“知识整体论”者和“历史主义”学派的质疑作了一定的阐述 ,最后从实践标准的二重性角度对“判决性实验”进行了简要的评析

Owing to the causes of localizations of social history,limitation of the development of science, in particular mathematics from the Renaissance to the Hegel period, some complicated situations appeared in the developmental course of formalization of logic. Bacon advanced induction and tried to replace formal logic by scientific methodology. As a result, on the one hand he advanced his scientific method for induction, on the other hand he confused, to some degree, people with the essence of logic. Hegel incorrectly...

Owing to the causes of localizations of social history,limitation of the development of science, in particular mathematics from the Renaissance to the Hegel period, some complicated situations appeared in the developmental course of formalization of logic. Bacon advanced induction and tried to replace formal logic by scientific methodology. As a result, on the one hand he advanced his scientific method for induction, on the other hand he confused, to some degree, people with the essence of logic. Hegel incorrectly enlarged the intension of logic, he believed that logic should and must study not only form but also content. And this thought about logical essence went backward in history. But he put forward the idealist dialectics that is a great progress in the history of human epistemology.

从文艺复兴到黑格尔时代,由于社会历史、自然科学尤其是数学发展的局限、逻辑本质认识上的不明确等内在原因,逻辑学在形式化的发展过程中出现曲折。培根倡导归纳法,试图用科学方法论取代演绎逻辑的地位,其结果,一方面发展了归纳方法,另一方面,也模糊了人们对逻辑学的认识。黑格尔则把逻辑的内涵不正确地扩大,认为逻辑学不仅要研究形式而且还要研究内容,这是对逻辑学认识的一种倒退。然而,他的意外的却又极其重大、影响深远的贡献是发展了辩证法,这在人类认识演变史上是一个伟大的进步。

 
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