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燃料税
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  fuel tax
     The author believes that more fund-raising channels are needed apart from the main source: fuel tax.
     认为除征收“燃料税”这一主要资金来源外,就我国目前的现状来说, 其它一些资金筹措的方式尚有存在的必要性
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  相似匹配句对
     Fuel cells
     燃料电池
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     capital gain tax
     资本收益
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     Fuel Cell
     燃料电池
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     Cause and Effect of Tax Reform
     改因果
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  fuel tax
Finally we use our results to interpret the Fuel tax protests in France and England that took place in 2000 as well as the three successive pro-democracy revolutions in Georgia, Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan.
      
We also show that the effects of the CAFE standard are not equivalent to those of a fuel tax, as previously found, and that, for a given car pollution target, the former is preferred to the latter.
      
This decentralization plus diminishing fuel tax revenues used to finance road improvements have caused road research efforts to decline to a very low level.
      
A fuel tax seems an obvious first step in reducing gasoline and diesel use.
      
A fuel tax seems an obvious first step in reducing gasoline and diesel use by vehicles.
      
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Abstract s The general situation, main provisions and their characters of forest harvesting taxes in states of US are described. The mutual effect among taxes system in various states are discussed and the differences among different forest harvesting practices in various states are compared.

税收制度影响着森林的经营活动,税收是对林业投资影响最大的因素之一。在美国,最基本的两种纳税人类型是个体纳税人和团体纳税人。联邦政府和50个州对森林资产和与森林有关的收入征收各种形式的税款,如财产税、生产税、采伐税、所得税、产品税、销售税、遗产税、继承税、赠与税、信贷投资税、资本收益税、道路税、许可证税、存货税、汽油及燃料税等[1]。主要涉及各州森林采伐税的概况、主要条款及其特点。讨论美国各州税制之间是如何互相作用的以及分析比较各州森林采伐之间的差异。将有助于我们更好地了解美国现行税收制度对林业的影响,也有利于我国林业税制建设的借鉴。

The author attempts to find channels to raise funds for highway construction and maintenance and discusses suitable allocation and use of the funds after China's shift from fee-charging to taxation. The author believes that more fund-raising channels are needed apart from the main source: fuel tax.

针对我国即将实行的“费改税”, 探索了公路建设养护资金的筹措渠道以及资金应该如何合理地分配使用。认为除征收“燃料税”这一主要资金来源外,就我国目前的现状来说, 其它一些资金筹措的方式尚有存在的必要性

Both decision maker and environmentalist have recognized the important role that biofuel and energy crops could play in the era of pursuing sustainable development. Accordingly, a minimal share of renewables, including biofuel, is targeted in energy portfolio of many countries. To achieve the targets, policy instruments such as subsidy of various types, renewable portfolio standards and tax exemption are provided. As these instruments are administered by different authorities, their effective integration has...

Both decision maker and environmentalist have recognized the important role that biofuel and energy crops could play in the era of pursuing sustainable development. Accordingly, a minimal share of renewables, including biofuel, is targeted in energy portfolio of many countries. To achieve the targets, policy instruments such as subsidy of various types, renewable portfolio standards and tax exemption are provided. As these instruments are administered by different authorities, their effective integration has turned out to be uncoordinated and unguided. The policy integration is made even more complicated and difficult due to the interaction between newly introduced instruments and existing relevant instruments for other policy goals. Taking biodiesel for example, we apply the principal-agent approach to model the behavior of such agents as energy-crop producer, biodiesel producer and fuel consumer. The optimal policy integration is then examined under two circumstances representing different goals of the principal. The results indicate that optimal rule of integration is pretty much goal-dependent. Consistent adjustment of existing instruments may be required if new ones are to be introduced to achieve given objectives.

再生能源为当前各国致力发展之替代能源,旨在建立模型描述能源作物与生质柴油之供给者与需求者行为,观察政策对要素及产量供需之影响,可发现提高种植能源作物之单位面积补贴,会将使其种植面积及产出增加:提高生质柴油单位产量补贴,将增加能源作物需求及生质柴油供给,由于上述分析未考虑市场间之影响,可视为政策之短期效果。接着利用市场供需均衡原则,分别推导两个市场之均衡价格,进而了解政策对均衡价格之影响及政策变量间之相关性,发现提高能源作物或生质柴油补贴,将分别使其均衡价格下降;然而生质柴油补贴对能源作物之均衡价格则为正向影响。由于政策会影响价格,但在短期政策分析时并未考虑价格变动效果,长期若加入价格变动效果则会发现政策对要素及产量供需之影响均为不确定,亦即政策短期有效,但长期效果不定.在市场均衡下,能源作物与生质柴油补贴为正向关系,而生质柴油补贴与燃料税亦为正向关系.最后设定一社会福利极大化模型,在政府政策目标与预算限制下,观察政策变量问之相关性,发现能源作物补贴与其它燃料税率为正向关系,表示当政府提高燃料税的同时亦要增加能源作物的补贴.在社会福利模型中,其它燃料的税率弹性为政策决定的关键...

再生能源为当前各国致力发展之替代能源,旨在建立模型描述能源作物与生质柴油之供给者与需求者行为,观察政策对要素及产量供需之影响,可发现提高种植能源作物之单位面积补贴,会将使其种植面积及产出增加:提高生质柴油单位产量补贴,将增加能源作物需求及生质柴油供给,由于上述分析未考虑市场间之影响,可视为政策之短期效果。接着利用市场供需均衡原则,分别推导两个市场之均衡价格,进而了解政策对均衡价格之影响及政策变量间之相关性,发现提高能源作物或生质柴油补贴,将分别使其均衡价格下降;然而生质柴油补贴对能源作物之均衡价格则为正向影响。由于政策会影响价格,但在短期政策分析时并未考虑价格变动效果,长期若加入价格变动效果则会发现政策对要素及产量供需之影响均为不确定,亦即政策短期有效,但长期效果不定.在市场均衡下,能源作物与生质柴油补贴为正向关系,而生质柴油补贴与燃料税亦为正向关系.最后设定一社会福利极大化模型,在政府政策目标与预算限制下,观察政策变量问之相关性,发现能源作物补贴与其它燃料税率为正向关系,表示当政府提高燃料税的同时亦要增加能源作物的补贴.在社会福利模型中,其它燃料的税率弹性为政策决定的关键因素,当消费者对其他燃料需求的税率弹性大于-1时,政府应该对能源作物与生质柴油进行补贴。

 
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