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一般腐蚀
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     STUDY OF GENERAL CORROSION, SCC AND HE OF 3500MPa GRADE MARAGING STEEL
     3500MPa级马氏体时效钢的一般腐蚀应力腐蚀和氢脆的研究
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     GENERAL CORROSION AND STRESS CORROSION OF AZ91D IN TWO SALT SOLUTIONS AND AIR
     AZ91D镁合金在两种盐溶液和空气中的一般腐蚀和应力腐蚀
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     The corrosion test and slow strain rate test of die cast AZ91D magnesium alloy in 0.60mol/L NaCI and NaNO_3 solutions at pH 6 as well as in air were carried out.
     分别在pH值为6的0.60mol/L NaCl,0.60mol/L NaNO_3溶液和空气介质中对AZ91D压铸镁合金进行了一般腐蚀和慢应变速率试验。
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     Effect of Rare Earth and Calcium as Additives on Corrosion Resistance of Mg-Al Alloy
     RE和Ca对镁铝合金一般腐蚀行为影响的电化学研究
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     The results show that the variation of Mo, Nb contents and difference in microstructure of steels have no important effect on corrosion rate but influence their stress corrosion cracking behavior considerably. The similarity between stress cracking behavior of these steels in H_2S solution and in hydrogen charging condition implies that the nature of sulfide stress cracking of steels is hydrogen embrittlement.
     证明钢中Mo、Nb含量的变化与热处理条件的不同对其一般腐蚀行为影响很小,但能显著改变其抗应力腐蚀性能,12MnMoVNbTi钢在H_2S介质中的应力腐蚀破裂行为与它们在充氢条件下的应力破裂行为非常类似,显示其应力腐蚀破裂的实质是氢脆。
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     Corrosion
     腐蚀
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     Erosion Corrosion
     磨损腐蚀
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     ②general;
     ②一般的 ;
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     (2) isothermal;
     一般等温;
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     Effect of Rare Earth and Calcium as Additives on Corrosion Resistance of Mg-Al Alloy
     RE和Ca对镁铝合金一般腐蚀行为影响的电化学研究
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The corrosion behaviour of sensitized 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel in high tem-perature water was nvestigated from the environment angle. Stress corrosion crack-ing would occur in an acidic or neutral high emperature water in the presenceof a definite concentration of Cl~- and/or O_2. SEM electron fractographic nalysisshowed that in Cl~- containing water cracking was intercrystalline, while in O_2bearing water, racking was of a mixed type, mainly as cleavage. The apparentand real corrosion kinetic curves of Cr18Ni9Ti...

The corrosion behaviour of sensitized 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel in high tem-perature water was nvestigated from the environment angle. Stress corrosion crack-ing would occur in an acidic or neutral high emperature water in the presenceof a definite concentration of Cl~- and/or O_2. SEM electron fractographic nalysisshowed that in Cl~- containing water cracking was intercrystalline, while in O_2bearing water, racking was of a mixed type, mainly as cleavage. The apparentand real corrosion kinetic curves of Cr18Ni9Ti n high temperature water weregiven. It was shown that corrosion consisted of both dissolution and wet xida-tion, chiefly the latter. The correlation between the structure of the oxide films andcorrosion has een studied by means of Mossbauer internal conversion electronspectroscopy. In the case of general orrosion, the film consisted predominantlyof Fe_3O_4, while in the case of stress corrosion, the film onsisted of a multi-layerstructure with Fe_2O_3 as a predominating layer overlapped with layers containingFe_2O_3 and Fe_3O_4. In a boron containing water, FeBO_3 phase might appear in theoxide film ocally, but it neither caused nor inhibited stress corrosion. This "inert"behaviour of boron is related to he non-stoichiometry of Fe_3O_4 in the film tomake it anion-selective in nature. Based on corrosion-electro hemistry, it may beconcluded that stress corrosion takes place between the passive and transpassive regions n the polarization curve. Increasing Cl~- or O_2 content shifts the potentialof the alloy toward the ranspassive region. The action of Cl~- and O_2 are tochange the anodic and cathodic polarization curve espectively. It was suggestedthat in the Cl~- containing water the rapid dissolution of TiC along boundary sthe main cause of stress corrosion, while in the O_2 bearing water, the selectivedissolution of Cr in the lloy is critical. After thoroughly reviewing the charac-teristics of stress corrosion, the authors were nclined to think that stress not onlyis one of the causes for the serious corrosion pits, but also induced ctive pathswhich accomodate, accelerate and help guide the metallic atoms in the pit in dis-solving egularly. Finally, a preliminary model of stress corrosion cracking of1Cr18Ni9Ti in high temperature high ressure water has been proposed.

从环境角度研究了敏化1Cr18Ni9Ti不锈钢在高温水中的腐蚀行为.研究指出,在一定浓度Cl~-和(或)O_2存在情况下,在酸性和中性高温高压水中都会出现应力腐蚀破裂.断口电子金相表明,在氯离子为主的环境中,破裂系晶间型;在氧为主的环境中,破裂系以解理为主的混合型.给出了1Cr18Ni9Ti在高温水中腐蚀的表观和真实动力学曲线,表明腐蚀包含溶解和湿氧化两部分,而以湿氧化为主.借Mossbauer内转换电子谱研究了氧化膜结构与腐蚀的关系,指出在一般腐蚀条件下,膜的主要组分为Fe_3O_4,而在应力腐蚀条件下,膜的主要组分为Fe_2O_3,并且系Fe_2O_3和Fe_3O_4多层重叠结构.当水中添加了一定量的硼,在氧化膜中会局部出现FeBO_3相,既不会引起也不会抑制应力腐蚀.硼的这种“惰性”作用和膜结构中Fe_3O_4相的非化学计量比,膜具有阴离子选择性有关.根据腐蚀电化学,认为应力腐蚀系发生在钝化/过钝化区域,增高Cl~-或O_2含量,从不同角度都会使合金的电位接近过钝化区.Cl~-的作用在于改变阳极极化曲线,O_2的作用在于改变阴极极化曲线.在含Cl~-水中,晶界TiC的迅速溶解是应力腐蚀的主要...

从环境角度研究了敏化1Cr18Ni9Ti不锈钢在高温水中的腐蚀行为.研究指出,在一定浓度Cl~-和(或)O_2存在情况下,在酸性和中性高温高压水中都会出现应力腐蚀破裂.断口电子金相表明,在氯离子为主的环境中,破裂系晶间型;在氧为主的环境中,破裂系以解理为主的混合型.给出了1Cr18Ni9Ti在高温水中腐蚀的表观和真实动力学曲线,表明腐蚀包含溶解和湿氧化两部分,而以湿氧化为主.借Mossbauer内转换电子谱研究了氧化膜结构与腐蚀的关系,指出在一般腐蚀条件下,膜的主要组分为Fe_3O_4,而在应力腐蚀条件下,膜的主要组分为Fe_2O_3,并且系Fe_2O_3和Fe_3O_4多层重叠结构.当水中添加了一定量的硼,在氧化膜中会局部出现FeBO_3相,既不会引起也不会抑制应力腐蚀.硼的这种“惰性”作用和膜结构中Fe_3O_4相的非化学计量比,膜具有阴离子选择性有关.根据腐蚀电化学,认为应力腐蚀系发生在钝化/过钝化区域,增高Cl~-或O_2含量,从不同角度都会使合金的电位接近过钝化区.Cl~-的作用在于改变阳极极化曲线,O_2的作用在于改变阴极极化曲线.在含Cl~-水中,晶界TiC的迅速溶解是应力腐蚀的主要原因,而在含氧水中,晶粒Fe-Cr-Ni中Cr的选择性溶解是应力腐蚀的主要原因.在分析应力腐蚀的特征后,指出应力既是某些严重腐蚀点形成原因之一,而且应力可能产生的活性途径也将适应、加速并指引某一严重腐蚀点金属原子作有规则的溶解.据此初步提出1Cr18Ni9Ti不锈钢在高温高压水中应力腐蚀破裂的过程.

Nickel-base alloy, especially Hastelloy N, is a highly corrosion-resistant material developed for fused salt reactor . The experimental results as. reiorted in last literature were obtained in highly pure fused fluoride fuels with dechromisation as the main reaction. The present work is conducted in ordinary fused fluorides or nitrates in static state. The structure of surface. corrosion layer, the influence of Mo on dealloying corrosion at crystal boundaries and the process of stress corrosion cracking have...

Nickel-base alloy, especially Hastelloy N, is a highly corrosion-resistant material developed for fused salt reactor . The experimental results as. reiorted in last literature were obtained in highly pure fused fluoride fuels with dechromisation as the main reaction. The present work is conducted in ordinary fused fluorides or nitrates in static state. The structure of surface. corrosion layer, the influence of Mo on dealloying corrosion at crystal boundaries and the process of stress corrosion cracking have been studied. It is shown that there is selective precipitation of Mo in addition to Cr. The effect of Mo is twofold. On the one hand, as the Mo content in the alloy is increased, the relative speeds of dealloying of Mo and Cr along crystal boundaries and within the crystals are changed accordingly, thus intercrystalline corrosion is restrained. On the other hand,the surface layer is essentially a loose, porous layer of pure Ni owing to dealloying of Mo and Cr, and, despite of rather low speed of general corrosion of Hastelloy, the. dealloying corrosion at crystal boundaries will be accelerated under tensile stress, thus the selective dealloying of Mo and Cr along crystal boundaries will in turn promote the initiation and growth of crack and will lead to. intercrystalline stress corrosion cracking.

镍基合金、特别是Hastelloy N(16Mo—7Cr—5Fe—Ni)为美国发展熔盐反应堆研制的一种耐蚀材料。大量文献是针对在高纯熔融氟化物燃料盐系中的试验结果,并证实一般主要发生的是选择性脱铬反应。本试验(静态)是在普通(未经特殊净化处理)熔融氟化物盐或硝酸盐中进行。通过金属物理等手段,详细研究了表面腐蚀层的结构、钼对晶界脱溶腐蚀的影响及应力腐蚀破裂的过程。表明除铬元素外,也存在钼元素的选择性脱溶腐蚀,并构成上述腐蚀现象的主要原因。本文着重说明了钼的双重作用:一方面随着合金中钼含量的提高,明显改变了钼、铬元素沿晶粒边界和通过晶粒内部脱溶腐蚀的相对速度,从而抑制了在高温氟盐中出现晶间腐蚀;另一方面钼、铬元素的脱溶反应造成表面腐蚀层基本上是一种疏松多孔的纯镍层。在熔融硝酸盐中,尽管Hastelloy N合金的一般腐蚀速度极低,但发现在张应力的作用下加速了局部晶界的脱溶腐蚀;而钼、铬元素沿晶界的选择性脱溶反过来又促进了裂纹的形成和扩展,引起晶间应力腐蚀破裂。

The polarization and stress corrosion cracking behavior of 12 MnMoVNbTi steels in H_2S saturated solution was studied and comparison with hydrogen stress cracking behavior was made. The results show that the variation of Mo, Nb contents and difference in microstructure of steels have no important effect on corrosion rate but influence their stress corrosion cracking behavior considerably. The similarity between stress cracking behavior of these steels in H_2S solution and in hydrogen charging condition implies...

The polarization and stress corrosion cracking behavior of 12 MnMoVNbTi steels in H_2S saturated solution was studied and comparison with hydrogen stress cracking behavior was made. The results show that the variation of Mo, Nb contents and difference in microstructure of steels have no important effect on corrosion rate but influence their stress corrosion cracking behavior considerably. The similarity between stress cracking behavior of these steels in H_2S solution and in hydrogen charging condition implies that the nature of sulfide stress cracking of steels is hydrogen embrittlement. The experimental results of stress relaxation and constant load tests in hydrogen charging condition prove that hydrogen has dual action of softening and hardening steel.It is found that the entrance of hydrogen induces plastic deformation of 12MnMoVNbTi steels below their yield stress level. The plastic deformation rate slows down with time and will not lead to fracture. From the relationship between hydrogen stress cracking and plastic deformation behavior, it is suggested that the dislocation movement in this deformation process would help the trasport of hydrogen to plastic zone and crack tip and promote hydrogen embrittlement.

本文研究了12MnMoVNbTi低合金钢在饱和H_3S溶液中的极化和应力腐蚀行为,并与电解充氢条件下的应力破裂行为进行了对比。证明钢中Mo、Nb含量的变化与热处理条件的不同对其一般腐蚀行为影响很小,但能显著改变其抗应力腐蚀性能,12MnMoVNbTi钢在H_2S介质中的应力腐蚀破裂行为与它们在充氢条件下的应力破裂行为非常类似,显示其应力腐蚀破裂的实质是氢脆。充氢条件下应力弛豫和恒载荷拉伸试验结果表明,氢有引起钢的软化和硬化的双重作用。由于氢的进入所产生的软化作用使钢在屈服强度以下发生塑性变形,但随后的硬化过程又使变形速度逐步减慢。这种由氢的作用引起的在较低应力下发生的塑性变形过程并不直接导致断裂,但塑性变形行为和氢应力破裂行为之间的关系表明,这种变形过程中的位错运动能够帮助氢的移动和向塑变区及裂纹尖端集中,促进氢脆断裂。

 
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