Computing the certainty equivalent coefficient by risk rate returns and minimum rate of none-risk returns is, in fact, the method to calculate risk-adjusted discount rate. It is a theoretical mistake to analyze the investment risk this way.

Also, with balance of cultivated land economic productivity as the basis, the article brought forward a calculation method of the equivalent coefficient of cultivated land requisition-compensation balance according to the economic income of the unit area land.

The authors deduce the equivalent coefficient formula of the wall pressure by using the principle of soil mechanics and considering the effect of the wall pressure caused by gravity on the absolute rotating speed.

The magnitude of frost heave force is figured out by means of the half formula and half experience,namely the Equivalent Elasticity Coefficient Method.

The magnitude of frost heave force is related with the average value of the equivalent elasticity coefficient for lining structure,ice and surrounding rock,frozen-heave ratio,the depth of water and so on. The magnitude differs from the level of the surrounding rock,as a rule,it is between 0.9 and 1.43 MPa;

If other factors are the same,frost heave force increases along with the accretion of the equivalent elasticity coefficient,it shows that it is adverse for controlling the freezing damage when the rigidity of lining structure is increasing,so lining structure should be flexible,not be rigid.

2. The amounts of predation of the main predators were determined respectly. Theadjusted predation equivalency coefficients of different predators were calculated basedon the amount of potential predation of each species. Thus, the predation equivalencysystems were established.

The formation of NO_x in combustion products is briefly expounded, and the effects of combustion stoichiometric ratios and oxygen enrichment on NO_x formation are also discussed.

2) Considering the actual situation of Shanghai, amended equivalence factor is brought forward and a matrix is formed with equivalence factors.

The TNT equivalence factor for silver azide was shown to vary from 0.3 to 1.4, depending on the distance from the centre of the explosion.

This agrees well with the generally reported equivalence factor of about 0.4 (Baker et al.

Procedures are described by which the TNT equivalence factor can be calculated at any specified distance from a silver azide charge of known mass, or from a measurement of the shock radius and time, even when the charge mass is not known.

Results agree with previous observations that the concept of a single TNT equivalence value is inadequate to fully describe an explosive yield, rather TNT equivalence factor and overpressure duration should be presented as functions of radius.

To minimize this effect, the results may be corrected for differences between the ELISA cross-reactivities and the corresponding toxic equivalency factor values.

Because of the large number of congeners, relevant individual congeners are assigned with a toxic equivalency factor (TEF) that relate their toxicity to that of tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) (2,3,7,8-TCDD) and are to be evaluated as dioxins.

A toxic equivalency factor (TEF) of 0.07 was determined for PCB 126 in relation to TCDD based on overt lethality.

Adjusting for pharmacokinetic differences in the toxic equivalency factor approach for mixture risk assessment.

Development validation and problems with the toxic equivalency factor approach for risk assessment of dioxins and related compounds.

Calculation and comparisons show that the error caused by the assumption of concurrent temperatures of working medium and heated surfaces in boiler dynamic models is not negligible. In this paper, the cause of excessive error is discussed, the concepts of equivalent coefficient and equivalent mass of heated surface are proffered, and a formula for calculating the equivalent coefficient is derived. By the introduction of equivalent mass into the heat balance, the precision of the simplified dynamic model is raised....

Calculation and comparisons show that the error caused by the assumption of concurrent temperatures of working medium and heated surfaces in boiler dynamic models is not negligible. In this paper, the cause of excessive error is discussed, the concepts of equivalent coefficient and equivalent mass of heated surface are proffered, and a formula for calculating the equivalent coefficient is derived. By the introduction of equivalent mass into the heat balance, the precision of the simplified dynamic model is raised.

For the research of freezing of high temperature combustion products and the control of NO_x pollution, hydrocarbon fuels with adding oxygenant were used to produce homogeneous combustion products at 1800～2600K. The variations of main compositions during quenching of high temperature combustion products are investigated. The quench rate is about (0.2～0.5)×10~6K/s. The formation of NO_x in combustion products is briefly expounded, and the effects of combustion stoichiometric ratios and oxygen enrichment on NO_x...

For the research of freezing of high temperature combustion products and the control of NO_x pollution, hydrocarbon fuels with adding oxygenant were used to produce homogeneous combustion products at 1800～2600K. The variations of main compositions during quenching of high temperature combustion products are investigated. The quench rate is about (0.2～0.5)×10~6K/s. The formation of NO_x in combustion products is briefly expounded, and the effects of combustion stoichiometric ratios and oxygen enrichment on NO_x formation are also discussed.

Synopsis: Relying on an objective intuition to the physical seuse of the formula. i. e. mathematical expcession. along with the consideration upon the translation of zinc equivalent in alloying elenent at three levels, the writer discovers and verifies some problems in the current calculating formula by chance. and further advances tentalively three plain calcldating formulas. It points out that the problems are caused objectively by the fact shich“Equivalent Total Weight”is not exsted. however the wrong conception...

Synopsis: Relying on an objective intuition to the physical seuse of the formula. i. e. mathematical expcession. along with the consideration upon the translation of zinc equivalent in alloying elenent at three levels, the writer discovers and verifies some problems in the current calculating formula by chance. and further advances tentalively three plain calcldating formulas. It points out that the problems are caused objectively by the fact shich“Equivalent Total Weight”is not exsted. however the wrong conception and conclusion of“Equivalent Total Weight”is retained in that formula.