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个体计算
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     Especially when we search for the optimum cut points with the genetic algorithm, each change of cut points set will involve calculating consistency level again, it influence the efficiency of algorithm badly .
     尤其在用遗传算法进行最优割点搜索时,每一次遗传进化迭代,都必须为种群中的每一个体计算其编码所代表的一致性水平,这样大大影响遗传算法的执行效率。
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     We also give a new correction factor to simplify the calculation of the Unstatistic.
     的计算
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     CALCULATION OF CAPACITANCE
     电容的计算
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     Conclusion The individual approach isrecommended in the clinical practice because the T/P ratio might be overestimatedby the global approach.
     结论 建议采用个体计算T/P;
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     (2)The cerebellum is involved in cognitive arithmetic.
     (2)小脑参与个体的数字计算的认知活动。
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     individual spirit;
     个体精神;
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Groups were designated as having either group or individual account-ability for mastery of lesson content.
      
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An individual account of the contribution that each of the professional groups makes to care as demonstrated through their research activity.
      
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This paper deals with injury and loss caused by the cotton bug (Adelphocoris suturalus Jak). The cotton bugs injure all the tender organs of cotton plant, without obvious preference. The yield loss of cotton caused by the adult is always larger than that caused by the numph,the injury and loss during the period of growing buds and bolls are larger than that during the period of growing leaves. It appears that the earlier the injuring period, the less yield loss of cotton.Compared to checck the yield loss caused...

This paper deals with injury and loss caused by the cotton bug (Adelphocoris suturalus Jak). The cotton bugs injure all the tender organs of cotton plant, without obvious preference. The yield loss of cotton caused by the adult is always larger than that caused by the numph,the injury and loss during the period of growing buds and bolls are larger than that during the period of growing leaves. It appears that the earlier the injuring period, the less yield loss of cotton.Compared to checck the yield loss caused by the cotton bug at a population of one bug per plant level, may reach 2,5-7.7% level at leaf period and 6.2-18.8% level at bud and boll period.

中黑盲蝽在棉花各生育期对叶、蕾、铃各器官的为害量或为害程度和田间盲蝽群体的密度呈正相关,而个体平均为害量则和群体密度呈负相关。若虫自然群体平均每头破叶4.71片,或可为害2.6—3.7个蕾,或1.93个铃,按成活个体计算则为害量可增加3—5倍。为害损失一般成虫期大于若虫期,蕾铃期大于真叶期。损失因素不在于叶片受害后形成的“破叶”,而是受害幼蕾幼铃超过正常的脱落所引起的减产和晚收。田间百株百头盲蝽群体,其为害损失,真叶期可达2.5—7.7%,蕾期6.2—18.8%;铃期9.1—15.1%以上;各生育期连续为害,产量损失为16.9%。

Objective: To search for the best method of calculating trough:peak ratio. Methods:Thirty three patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension were studied.After 2 week's treatment with placebo,they were randomizedly treated with amlodipine (AM, n =16)or nifedipine gastrointestinal therapeutic system(GITS)(NI, n =17)for a further 4 weeks.The efficacy of drugs were evaluated by office blood pressure and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.Trough value,peak value and trough:peak ratio were calculated...

Objective: To search for the best method of calculating trough:peak ratio. Methods:Thirty three patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension were studied.After 2 week's treatment with placebo,they were randomizedly treated with amlodipine (AM, n =16)or nifedipine gastrointestinal therapeutic system(GITS)(NI, n =17)for a further 4 weeks.The efficacy of drugs were evaluated by office blood pressure and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.Trough value,peak value and trough:peak ratio were calculated by different methods. Results:The blood pressure decreased significantly in both groups.There were significant differences between peak values calculated by different methods.The peak value and time to peak of individual subjects varied greatly.The trough values were similar when computed by different methods.In AM group,the systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure trough:peak ratios calculated by global method were 63% and 55% respectively,that calculated by individual method were (30±42)% and (25±48)% respectively.In NI group,they were 85%,81% and (55±34)%,(52±42)% respectively. Conclusion:The peak value and time to peak of individual subjects varied significantly.The peak values calculated over 2h in the whole 24 hours interval of dosing by individual approach is better.The global approach might lead to overestimation of trough:peak ratio.

目的:探讨计算降压谷峰比率的可靠方法。方法:33例轻~中度原发性高血压患者,服安慰剂2周后,随机分入氨氯地平(AM)组(n=16)与硝苯地平控释片(NI)组(n=17)治疗4周。以诊室血压与动态血压监测评价降压效果,采用不同方法计算降压峰值、谷值、谷峰比率。结果:两组血压均显著降低。不同方法计算的峰值间差异较大。以2小时时段法及在24小时内计算的2小时峰值较大,降压峰值及达峰时间的个体变异均较大。不同方法计算的谷值间无显著差异。AM组总体方法计算的收缩压、舒张压谷峰比率分别为63%、55%,个体方法计算的收缩压、舒张压谷峰比率分别为(30±42)%、(25±48)%;NI组总体方法计算的收缩压、舒张压谷峰比率分别为85%、81%,个体方法计算的收缩压、舒张压谷峰比率分别为(55±34)%、(52±42)%。结论:降压峰值及达峰时间的个体间变异均较大,在24小时内计算2小时峰值是较可靠的方法,总体计算法高估谷峰比率,个体计算法较好。

Objective To analyze the reasonable method of trough/peak(T/P) ratioand smoothness index (SI) to evaluate the efficacy of long-effective antihypertensivedrugs. Methods Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) results of 33patients with mild or moderate hypertension were analyzed, among them 15 weretreated with irbsartan ,the other 18 with indapamide sustained release. T/P and SIwere calculated by the global or the individual method. Results Calculated by globalmethod, the T/P ratio of irbsartan was...

Objective To analyze the reasonable method of trough/peak(T/P) ratioand smoothness index (SI) to evaluate the efficacy of long-effective antihypertensivedrugs. Methods Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) results of 33patients with mild or moderate hypertension were analyzed, among them 15 weretreated with irbsartan ,the other 18 with indapamide sustained release. T/P and SIwere calculated by the global or the individual method. Results Calculated by globalmethod, the T/P ratio of irbsartan was 71.22% and 68.47%, indapamide was 93.18%and 65.67% , the SI of irbsartan was 4.20 and 2.54, indapamide was 4.28 and 3.02 ,respectively. All parameters of T/P and SI calculated by individual method werelower than that calculated by global method. Conclusion The individual approach isrecommended in the clinical practice because the T/P ratio might be overestimatedby the global approach. While the SI should be calculated by the global method dueto the obvious variation hourly of ABPM results calculated one by one. At the meantime, the SI calculated by individual approach might be considered to somebody.

目的 用动态血压监测,探讨谷峰比值(T/P)和平滑指数(SI)的合理计算方法,为临床长效降压药的评价提供依据。方法 患者服用伊贝沙坦和吲哒帕胺缓释片;治疗前后用动态血压监测结果,比较整体和个体2种方法计算T/P和SI值。结果 整体计算法:伊贝沙坦的T/P分别为收缩压为71.22%,舒张压为68.47%,吲哒帕胺缓释片为93.18%和65.67%;伊贝沙坦收缩压和舒张压的SI分别为4.20和2.54,吲哒帕胺缓释片为4.28和3.02。个体计算法:T/P和SI的所有指标均低于整体计算法。结论 建议采用个体法计算T/P;据整体法计算SI考虑药物降压平稳性,同时计算其个体SI。

 
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