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An expression is obtained which can be used to predict the phase transition pressure if the initial elastic moduli are known.


The addition of nonionic surfactant, biosurfactant, and CaCl2 increased the initial elastic modulus and undrained shear strength of the kaolinitesand mixture soils.


The timedependent rheometric characteristics on application of a constant shear stress within the physiological range showed an initial elastic and subsequent viscoelastic phase, which fitted Burger's model of creep compliance.


The influence of polymer composition and of the initial elastic constants on the pressure dependence of the elastic modulus and the yield stress is discussed.


One of the major advantages of the realtime method is the possibility to study the initial elastic deformation region.

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 Yaoxianhe singletrack tunnel driven through the old loess Q_2, has an overburden of 40m and a total length of 311m. Shotcrete was firstly adopted as apermanent lining on a section of 55m long. Linear elastic and nonlinear finiteelement analyses were conducted in order to prove theoretically the feasibilityof such an attempt. Most parameters used in the calculation were determined byfield tests and lab experiments. In the linear elastic analyses, it was assumedthat the excavation and the lining of the tunnel... Yaoxianhe singletrack tunnel driven through the old loess Q_2, has an overburden of 40m and a total length of 311m. Shotcrete was firstly adopted as apermanent lining on a section of 55m long. Linear elastic and nonlinear finiteelement analyses were conducted in order to prove theoretically the feasibilityof such an attempt. Most parameters used in the calculation were determined byfield tests and lab experiments. In the linear elastic analyses, it was assumedthat the excavation and the lining of the tunnel were performed at one driftand the stresses and deformations of the soil mass and lining computed accordingly. In the nonlinear analyses, the time effect of the stagebystage excavation and lining work was considered;and the hyperbolic constitutive relation suggested by Duncan was observed, while it was shown in the experimentsthat the initial moduli of the loess were stressindependent. Results from theanalyses indicate that the Iinear elastic analysis, taking no account of both thetime effect of the stagebystage excavation and the nonlinear stressstrain relationship of materials, gives rise to underestimated deformation values andoverestimated stress values of the lining, while the nonlinear analysis takingaccount all of these aspects, thus reflecting the real interaction of tne liningand surrounding mass, gives deformation values consistent with the measuredones and gives stress values more reasonable. And shotcrete used as support ofloess tunnels can secure their stability while the strength of the shotcrete layeris governed by its shear resistance.  腰岘河单线铁路隧道穿经老黄土Q_2,埋深40米,全长311米。首次在55米长的地段上试验采用喷射混凝土作为永久支护。为了从理论上验证,进行了线弹性的和非线性的有限元分析。计算参数均由现场测试和实验室试验所确定。在线弹性分析中假定隧道一次开挖完毕且衬砌一次做好,计算了土体和衬砌的应力和变形。在非线性分析中,考虑了分阶段开挖与衬砌的时间效应;采用了Duncan建议的双曲线本构关系,惟由试验指出,黄土的初始弹性模量与应力无关。分析结果表明:不考虑开挖过程的时间效应以及材料的应力—应变非线性关系的线弹性有限元分析,其所算得的变形值偏小,衬砌应力值偏大;而考虑这些因素的非线性有限元分析,能反映隧道衬砌与周围土体的实际受力变形情况,算得的变形值与实测值符合良好,衬砌应力值较为合理。用喷射混凝土支护黄土隧道,能保证其稳定性,而喷层强度则为其抗剪强度所控制。  The mechanical properties of fault gouge of Honghe fault zone were studied at temperatures up to 600℃, confining pressures up to 700 MPa and strain rate of 4.4×105/s, At room temperature and high pressure the stressstrain curves of gouge were characterized by linear and nonlinear stages of deformation, at high temperature and pressure the nonlinear deformation was presented in the curves. The failure strength of gouge increased with increasing confining pressure at the same temperature, and de creased with... The mechanical properties of fault gouge of Honghe fault zone were studied at temperatures up to 600℃, confining pressures up to 700 MPa and strain rate of 4.4×105/s, At room temperature and high pressure the stressstrain curves of gouge were characterized by linear and nonlinear stages of deformation, at high temperature and pressure the nonlinear deformation was presented in the curves. The failure strength of gouge increased with increasing confining pressure at the same temperature, and de creased with increasing temperature at the same confining pressure. As the content of calcite in gouge was more than 20 %, the failure strength at high temperature decreased with increasing confining pressure, this anomalous change in mechanical behavior of gouge may be related to the plastic deformation and solidgas transition induced by calcite and to the decreasing effective pressure caused by increasing pore fluid pressure. The acoustic emission activity occurred in the gouge specimen during deformation, but no stress drop was observed in the stressstrain curve. After the differential stress reached the failure strength, the gouge specimen underwent a gradual failure process. The initial and effective elastic modules were determined from the stressstrain curves of gouges, the former were smaller than the latter. The gouge was lithified at T≥400℃ and σ3≥300 MPa confining pressure, according to the lithifying conditions of temperature and pressure, the existing depth of clayey gouge does not exceed 1015 km, Because the failure of gouges took a gradual character, it is favorable for the active fault with gouge to slide stably.  断层泥在室温高压下的应力应变曲线呈非线性、线性等阶段性变形,在高温高压下则呈非线性变形,两者均表现出渐进破坏。含水量、矿物成分和温压条件对变形特征和破坏强度有重要影响。曲线的初始弹性模量小于有效弹性模量。断层泥在温度T≥400℃和σ_3≥300MPa时发生岩化,据此岩化温压条件可估计出未岩化断层泥存在深度将不超过10—15km。由于断层泥具渐进破坏特征,故在高温高压条件下断层泥有利于断层活动呈现稳滑。  The mechanical properties of Zhoucheng fault gouge of Honghe fault zone were studied under high pressure in triaxial compression equipment with solid confining medium and at strain rate of 4.4×105s1. It shows that the stressstrain curves of gouge exhibit linear and nonlinear deformation characteristics which correspond to the different deformation mechanisms of compact, yield and cataclastic flow of gouge specimen. The relations between the failure strength (σc) of gouge and the confining pressure (σэ) areσc... The mechanical properties of Zhoucheng fault gouge of Honghe fault zone were studied under high pressure in triaxial compression equipment with solid confining medium and at strain rate of 4.4×105s1. It shows that the stressstrain curves of gouge exhibit linear and nonlinear deformation characteristics which correspond to the different deformation mechanisms of compact, yield and cataclastic flow of gouge specimen. The relations between the failure strength (σc) of gouge and the confining pressure (σэ) areσc = 23.7э30.56 (for the dry gouge)σc = 10.4э30.62 (for the moist gouge).The moisture content is an important factor which influences the deformation characteristics and the failure strength of gouge. The effective elastic moduli, Eed and Eem, of dry and moist gouge and the initial elastic modulus, Eom, of moist gouge increase with increasing confining pressure, and the initial elastic modulus, E0d, of dry gouge is nearly constant. The acoustic emission events occurre during the deformation. Under high pressure the progressive failure processes take place in the gouge specimen, so the deformation of gouge is favorable to stable sliding of the active fault.  在固体三轴高压和应变率4.4×10~(5)s~(1)下研究了红河断裂带周城断层泥的力学性质。研究结果表明,在差应力作用下,断层泥应力应变曲线表现出与试件压实、屈服和碎裂流动等不同变形机制对应的非线性,线性等阶段性变化特征。干、湿断层泥破坏应力σ_c随围压σ_3的变化关系分别为在较高围压下,σ_c随σ_3呈线性变化。含水量对变形特征和破坏应力水平有重要影响。干、湿断层泥有效弹性模量E_(ed)和E_(em)以及(潮)湿断层泥的初始模量E_(om)均随围压增加而增加,但干断层泥初始弹性模量E_(od)近似保持常数。同时,E_(od)E_(ed)。在试件变形过程中有声发射事件显示,但数量少,辐射弹性波能量小。断层泥试件破坏型式表现为渐进式碎裂流动特征,因此,断层泥变形有利于断层活动呈现稳滑。   << 更多相关文摘 
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