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小龙虾
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  “小龙虾”译为未确定词的双语例句
    Research on the reliability that "Crayfishes" "vomit" the heavy metals
    “小龙虾”“吐”重金属真实性的研究
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  crayfish
New Approaches to Exploitation and Conservation of Crayfish Populations
      
The historical analysis of shellfishing for crayfish in Belarus demonstrates the inefficiency of the existing measures for their protection.
      
The proposed approaches to the conservation and propagation of crayfish are based on intensification of the shellfishery connected with the necessity of taking measures to promote crayfish dispersal.
      
In experiments performed in aquariums, the daily consumption of Chara vulgaris alga by crayfish (Astacus astacus L.) has been determined.
      
The density of the crayfish population and the biomass of higher aquatic vegetation in the lake have been determined in field studies.
      
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Taylor et al. (1999) studied the fossil crayfish from the Upper Jurassic Yixian Formation of Jehol Group, Liaoning Province, China. Very recently more specimens were found from these sites. One of these is worthy of special remark and illustration. Specimen 126354 appears to be a molted exo skeleton (Plate Ⅰ). Much research has been conducted on the taphonomy of crustaceans (e. g., see Hof and Briggs, 1997). In all cases, these experiments have involved the death and preservation of intact animals. The...

Taylor et al. (1999) studied the fossil crayfish from the Upper Jurassic Yixian Formation of Jehol Group, Liaoning Province, China. Very recently more specimens were found from these sites. One of these is worthy of special remark and illustration. Specimen 126354 appears to be a molted exo skeleton (Plate Ⅰ). Much research has been conducted on the taphonomy of crustaceans (e. g., see Hof and Briggs, 1997). In all cases, these experiments have involved the death and preservation of intact animals. The processes of bacterially modulated phosphatization commence almost immediate after death, and distinctive stages in the process have been recognized for both the cuticles and soft tissues therein. Actual molts in the fossil record are rare. The entire mineral and much of the organic material of an arthropod exoskeleton are reabsorbed prior to ecdysis. What is cast off then is very thin and friable, and these breakdown very readily. Furthermore, crustaceans often eat the shed exoskeleton to recycle the unabsorbed materials back into laying down the layers of the new skeleton. Consequently, molted skeletons do not remain in the environment for long in order to be buried and fossilized. This specimen appears to us to be a molt for three reasons. First is its apparent lack of a carapace. As crayfish molt, the exoskeleton typically splits down the dorsal midline to allow the animal to step out of the shell. The carapace is attached to the rest of the exoskeleton by thin arthrodial membranes in the branchiostegal region and at the front of the cephalon. These readily separate from the remains of the sternites and endoskeletal apodemes along the ventral surface. Second, the thoracic limbs are partially disarticu lated and splayed in a manner of a molt, and the fractosternal suture rather evident. The arthrodial membranes between leg and body segments are very thin in a molted skeleton and can easily part. Third, there is little or no evidence of internal phosphatized soft tissue in the specimen at hand. Crayfish of the Jehol biota almost always have remains of the soft tissue preserved, and indeed pre sence of this material often complicates interpretation of the fossilized structures on these animals. There is some indication of spot phosphatization of the cuticle in this specimen, akin to that documented by Hof and Briggs (1997), but we see no remnants of phosphtized muscles beneath the cuticle. This specimen probably is a post adult individual some 11.5 cm in length, and may be a female with an annulus ventralis. It may belong to Cricoidoscelosus aethus rather than Palaeocambarus licenti based on its flagellate pleopods. The recognition of these molts adds to the unusual and distinctive preservation now becoming recognized from the various localities and strata of the Jehol biota of northeastern China.

淡水小龙虾化石在世界上十分少见。龙虾蜕皮的化石还未曾有过记录。文中讨论热河生物群上侏罗统义县组发现的、保存十分完好的蜕皮化石。判断其蜕皮标本的 3个理由是 :没有保存头胸甲 ;步足与体节之间的关节膜很薄以及几乎看不到磷酸盐化的软组织。

In this study,conditions of breeding Pro-cambarns Clarkii were controlled.Samples were taken from cheeks,heatocirrhosis,venter muscles and cheliped muscles of these bred crawfishes,as the breeding time was 0,7,14,21,28,35,42,49 and 56 days respectively.Heavy metals including Cu,Zn,Cd,Pb and Cr of these samples and environmental water samples were quantitatively analysed by means of AAS.The results indicated that the occurrence rate of Cu,Zn,Cd,Pb,and Cr in the four parts of the crawfishes was 100%;Heavy metals...

In this study,conditions of breeding Pro-cambarns Clarkii were controlled.Samples were taken from cheeks,heatocirrhosis,venter muscles and cheliped muscles of these bred crawfishes,as the breeding time was 0,7,14,21,28,35,42,49 and 56 days respectively.Heavy metals including Cu,Zn,Cd,Pb and Cr of these samples and environmental water samples were quantitatively analysed by means of AAS.The results indicated that the occurrence rate of Cu,Zn,Cd,Pb,and Cr in the four parts of the crawfishes was 100%;Heavy metals accumulated in the crawfish increased slightly with the breeding days increasing.Thus,the view that the crawfishes spit out heavy metals is wrong.

通过对克氏原螯虾Pro-cambarusC lark ii的饲养条件的控制,用原子吸收分光光度计进行光谱分析,对在连续饲养的0、7、14、21、28、35、42、49、56天克氏原螯虾体内的鳃、肝胰脏、腹部肌肉、螯足肌肉和环境水样进行重金属元素Cu、Zn、Cd、Pb和C r定量的分析。实验结果显示,在被测的克氏原螯虾的四个部位,Cu、Zn、Cd、Pb和C r的检出率为100%;克氏原螯虾体内重金属含量随饲养天数的增加而变化不大,即“小龙虾在饲养过程中”‘吐’重金属的说法是错误的。

 
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