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     leaf> leafstalk.
     叶片>叶柄。
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     leaf>leafstalk.
     叶片>叶柄。
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  ow
Consideration is given to the probabilistic ow network whose arcs fail independently with the given probabilities.
      
By the probability of retaining the maximal ow is meant the probability that the maximal ow in such a network is equal to the maximal ow in the corresponding nonprobabilistic network.
      
A nonlinear stochastic control problem related to ow control is considered.
      
Optimal and suboptimal controls are investigated and compared with the ow control schemes used in TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocols/Internet Protocols) networks.
      
The chains are additionally bonded along the Z-axis of the crystal by Ow-H···O hydrogen bonds.
      
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The shedding of buds and bolls in cotton plant is a widespread phenomenon under field conditions. It frequently happenes when vegetative growth is exuberent with ample supply of water and fertilizers. As a result of the overlapping of the branches and leaves, the light intensity in middle and lower parts of the cotton canopy is very low, especially under close planting. Heavy shedding of buds and bolls of cotton plants often occurs under such conditions. In an investigation on the relationship between the effect...

The shedding of buds and bolls in cotton plant is a widespread phenomenon under field conditions. It frequently happenes when vegetative growth is exuberent with ample supply of water and fertilizers. As a result of the overlapping of the branches and leaves, the light intensity in middle and lower parts of the cotton canopy is very low, especially under close planting. Heavy shedding of buds and bolls of cotton plants often occurs under such conditions. In an investigation on the relationship between the effect of light intensity on translocation of foliar assimilates to fruiting bodies and the shedding of buds and bolls in cotton plants, a series of experiments were conducted using ~(14)C-labelling technique. The results obtained are summarized as follows:1. Light intensity markedly influenced the translocation of foliar assimilates in cotton plant. The content of radioactive carbon in shaded leaf was consistently higher than in unshaded leaf whether its location was on the upper or on the lower fruiting branch.2. The light intensity affected not only the direction but also the velocity of the movement of foliar assimilates to fruiting bodies of cotton plant.

应用~(14)C同位素研究了光线对叶片同化产物在棉株体内运输的影响。结果指出,光线显著地影响叶片~(14)C同化产物的运输。叶片遮光,不管遮光叶片的部位如何,在上部果枝或在下部果枝,叶片的~(14)C同化产物都明显地运向遮光的叶片。果枝遮光,则~(14)C同化产物增多运向遮光的果枝。光线不仅影响叶片~(14)C同化产物的运输方向,而且亦影响~(14)C同化产物向棉铃运输的速度。叶片遮光,减慢其同化产物输出的速度。

The bagging technique has been applied wildly in fruit production, especially for Fuji apples with a bagging rate of over 75% in main production areas of both Shandong and Shaanxi. 8 000-18 000 bags have been used annually, costing 270-1 100 yuan per 667 m~2. The cost took up 1/3 of the total investment and 45% of production material input. The labor cost in bagging and bag-removing accounted for main sector of the total labor cost. Therefore, the bagging has strongly influenced the structure of production investment....

The bagging technique has been applied wildly in fruit production, especially for Fuji apples with a bagging rate of over 75% in main production areas of both Shandong and Shaanxi. 8 000-18 000 bags have been used annually, costing 270-1 100 yuan per 667 m~2. The cost took up 1/3 of the total investment and 45% of production material input. The labor cost in bagging and bag-removing accounted for main sector of the total labor cost. Therefore, the bagging has strongly influenced the structure of production investment. In the research on photosynthesis of bagged apple trees, it was found that a bag could cause the shading of 5 leaves nearby, with the Pn values of the shaded leaves being negative. Mass bagging could reduce the photosynthetic ability of the middle and interior parts of the canopy very significantly. It is wise to apply the bagging technique based on both the market demand and local production conditions.

套袋技术目前已经广泛应用于果树生产,特别是富士苹果套袋率在山东和陕西主产区超过75%,每亩套袋量8000~18000个,纸袋投资270~1100元,占生产总投入比重的1/3,占生产资料平均投入的45%;而套袋和摘袋雇工成本在人工成本中占主要部分,套袋对苹果生产投资结构产生了巨大影响。对乔砧密植园大量套袋苹果树进行光合测定发现,套袋造成了投影部位5片以上叶子遮光,无论树冠外围还是内膛,被遮光的叶片净光合速率均为负值,大量套袋极显著降低了树冠中部和内膛照光叶片的光合能力。有关果实套袋技术的应用应该根据市场和生产条件细分确定。

 
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