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本文首先介紹了国外三种公路路面分等方案,詳細評論其优缺点;并結合我国具体情况,建議我国公路路面分等采用四級分等方案,分为高級、次高級、中級与低級四个技术等級。随后,本文又将我国的公路路面共21种类型,按照十种行車使用品质与六种技术經济品质指标,进行排队分析,以定出各种类型路面应隶屬的技术等級。本文提出了路面“經济交通量”的概念,并根据“投資回偿年限与較高技术等級路面大修間隔期限相等”的原則,导出了“經济交通量”的計算公式。最后,本文又介紹了国外对于各技术等級各类型路面所适应的交通量与正常合理行車速度的有关資料;并結合我国公路交通具体情况,拟定了我国公路各技术等級各类型路面所适应的交通量与最高車速的建議值。

It is of necessity to have good control of the stiffness of a shop equipped with a heavy or an intermediate duty crane for the purpose of quaranteeing its quality, improving the working conditions and making sure that the crane will work pro- perly. A practical and simple method is thus proposed for calculating the transverse and longitudinal stiffness of a single-story workshop And this is for the reference of the structural designers.

为了保证厂房的质量和提高功率,以免吊车的正常使用受到破坏而影响生产,因此,对重级和中级工作制吊车的厂房刚度有必要加以控制。本文提出了关于单层工业厂房横向与纵向刚度实用和简单的计算方法,以供结构设计工作者参考。

This test determined the fibre length and width/width of fibre cell walls/cell diameters of popular wood of nine introduced species of populus X euramericana(Dode)Ginier cv.“Eugenei”etc.in great qu- antities.As a result,ratio between fibre length and width/that betw- een cell walls and cell diameters/distribution and frequency of fibre length and width were calculated from the above four mean values. In addition,the quantities of tissue ratio of wood moleculars of indi- vidual tree species were determined. Based...

This test determined the fibre length and width/width of fibre cell walls/cell diameters of popular wood of nine introduced species of populus X euramericana(Dode)Ginier cv.“Eugenei”etc.in great qu- antities.As a result,ratio between fibre length and width/that betw- een cell walls and cell diameters/distribution and frequency of fibre length and width were calculated from the above four mean values. In addition,the quantities of tissue ratio of wood moleculars of indi- vidual tree species were determined. Based on the results of actual determination and statistical calcul- ation,the comparison and analysis were made of making paper-pulp for paper-making from wood fibres of nine kinds of popular trees.The results from analysis indicated that the fibre length of nine kinds of popular trees,except the shortest fibre length of Populus nigra Var. thevestina X P.hopeiensis +P.Simonii,are allthe medium length with- out obvious differences in fibre width,being 20.68 Micron witch the maxi- mum difference being 5.03 Micron.The distribution and frequency of fibrelength and width showed that the maximum distribution coincided with the maximum frequency. Based on the ratio between length and width calculated from wood fibre,the paper indicated that the ratio between length and width of nine kinds of popular trees was 40.29-52.70,which was greaser that the ratio of 35-45 required in making paper pulp process for paper- making,but the ratio of 35-45 was required to ensure better weaving of fibres.The ratio between thickness of fibre cell walls and cell diameters (2w/l)is smaller that 1,belonging to the first class of R.O.H.Ruaker. The fibre contents of wood of various popular tree species were between 68.6 percent to 73.7 percent,being far greater than 50 percent. In a comprehensive survey of wood fibre morphological values of nine kinds of popular tree species,although they meet the needs of making paper pulp for paper-making,the autors hold that the six kinds of popular trees such as Populus X euramericana(Dode)Guin- ier cv.“Eugenei”/Populus X euramericana(Dode)Guinier cv.“Robusta”/ Populus X euramericana(Dode)Guinier ev.“Graupaer-Selktion No.158.” /Populus X euramericana(Docle)Guinier/Populu“sepera”/Populus X eur- americana(Dode)Guinier cv.“Sarce Rouge”are more suitable popular tree species to be used in making paper pulp for paper-making in tak- ing into comprehensive consideration of their fast growth and wood qualities in combination.

本项试验对尤金杨等九种引种杨树木材的纤维长度、宽度、纤维细胞壁厚度及胞腔直径进行了足够数量的测定,并由此四项均值计算出纤维的长宽比、壁厚腔径比,以及纤维长度、宽度的分布和频率。此外还测量了各树种木材分子的组织比量。根据实测结果和统计计算,就九种杨树木材纤维对制浆造纸的适宜性作了对比和分析。分析结果认为九种杨树的纤维长度,除箭河小杨属短级外,其余皆为中级长度。而纤维宽度差异并不显著,平均在20.68~25.71微米之间,最大差异仅为5.03微米。纤维长度、宽度的分布和频率,显示其最大分布和最大频率基本一致。文章根据各树种木材纤维的长度和宽度计算出的长宽比表明,九种杨树的长宽比为40.29~52.70,皆大于制浆造纸生产过程中为保证纤维能良好地交织在一起所要求的35~45比值。纤维细胞壁厚腔径比(2w/1)亦皆小于1,属朗克尔第一级。各树种木材的纤维含量在68.6%~73.7%之间,远远大于50%。纵观九种杨树木材纤维形态值,虽均合乎制浆造纸要求,然结合其生长速度、木材性质综合考虑,作者认为尤金杨、健杨、德国158号杨、欧美杨、合作杨及撒尔红杨等六种杨树,更适宜于作为制浆造纸原料的树种。

 
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