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气候反馈作用
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     FEEDBACK OF VEGETATION ON CLIMATE
     植被对于气候反馈作用
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     (2)the role of feedback;
     2)评价、反馈作用;
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     It emphasizes assessment as feedback.
     侧重评定的反馈作用
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     The feedback of land use/cover change on climate
     土地利用/覆盖变化对气候反馈作用
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     Feedback
     反馈
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Synthesizing the available data at home and abroad, the authors concluded that the global climate change controlls the desertification and de-desertification by its effect on the variation in dry-wet climate over sand area; on the other hand, the desertification and de-desertification have a feedback effect on global climate change in the way of its impact on the radiation equilibrium, condensation nucleus, moisture and convection. If the global climate became warming due to the man-made CO_2 and other greenhouse...

Synthesizing the available data at home and abroad, the authors concluded that the global climate change controlls the desertification and de-desertification by its effect on the variation in dry-wet climate over sand area; on the other hand, the desertification and de-desertification have a feedback effect on global climate change in the way of its impact on the radiation equilibrium, condensation nucleus, moisture and convection. If the global climate became warming due to the man-made CO_2 and other greenhouse effect gases, the developing tendencies of desertification in northern China sand area would be that when the precipitation in the eastern China sand area increased, the desertification process would be retarded, even reversed; and the precipitation in western China decreased, the desertification would be accelerated.

本文通过全球气候变化对沙漠化的影响和沙漠化对沙区气候的反馈作用两方面,论述在气候变暖条件下,全球气候变化与沙漠化的关系,例如我国东部沙区降水增多,沙漠化逆转,西部沙区降水减少,沙漠化发展等原因。

In this paper,the author discussed three problems concerning the global change and its possible environmental influence. Firstly, the process of global change is under the control of coupling of natural factors and anthropogenic one. At present, natural change, including CO2 natural change, has been neglected to some extend. Secondly, the precipitation change synchronizing with future warning would be quite diffierent between sandy lands in northern area of China,and so did the developping tendency of land desertification....

In this paper,the author discussed three problems concerning the global change and its possible environmental influence. Firstly, the process of global change is under the control of coupling of natural factors and anthropogenic one. At present, natural change, including CO2 natural change, has been neglected to some extend. Secondly, the precipitation change synchronizing with future warning would be quite diffierent between sandy lands in northern area of China,and so did the developping tendency of land desertification. Thirdly,land desertification and its rehabitation,which induce the change of underlying surface,has had feedback to climatic system.

讨论了全球变化及其对我国北方沙区可能影响的三个问题。首先,全球变化是人为因素与自然变化的耦合,不能忽视全球自然变化过程的研究;其次,沙漠的变化主要与气候干湿变化有关,要注重研究未来增暖伴随的降水变化,预测土地沙漠化未来发展趋势;第三,要研究土地沙漠化及其逆转对气候的反馈作用。

Global change has been received more and more attention for the decades, CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere has been increasing at a much faster rate than that has been observed in the historical record. Scientific evidence from long term monitoring had revealed the creeping destruction of ecosystems upon which human existence depended. Recognition of this destruction has impelled to changing international policies used to manage our planet. A lot of research on terrestrial ecosystems and global change...

Global change has been received more and more attention for the decades, CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere has been increasing at a much faster rate than that has been observed in the historical record. Scientific evidence from long term monitoring had revealed the creeping destruction of ecosystems upon which human existence depended. Recognition of this destruction has impelled to changing international policies used to manage our planet. A lot of research on terrestrial ecosystems and global change have been done. However, they were mainly concentrated on the responses of terrestrial ecosystems to global change, the studies on the feedback of vegetation on climate have been seldom done. The study on the effect of vegetation on climate would enhance the understanding of global change, and promote the accuracy of evaluating and predicting the responses of terrestrial ecosystems to global change. The authors would discuss the feedback of plant on climate based on the two well known balance equations. There are two well known balance equations on the earth's surface. For long period, such as year, heat balance equation expressed as Rn=P+LE and water balance equation expressed as r=f+E,where Rn designates net radiation; P ,sensible heat; LE ,latent heat; r ,precipitation; f ,runoff; E ,evapotranspiration. Therefore, the difference Δ f between f a and f 0(after and before the surface change respectively) could be expressed as Δ f=f a-f 0= ( LΔr-ΔRn+ΔP)/L The difference Δ Rn between Rn a (after the surface is changed) and Rn 0 (before the surface is changed) can be written as ΔXRn=-QΔα-4sσθ 3 wΔθ wwhere Q designates short radiation; α ,reflectivity; θ w , surface temperature(290 K); σ , Stefan Boltzman constant(3.453×10 -10 J/(min·cm 2·K 4)); s ,surface parameter on long wave radiation(0.95). The difference ΔP between P a (after the surface is changed) and P 0 (before the surface is changed) can be set forth asΔP=ρC pD(Δθ w-Δθ) where θ designates air temperature at the height of 2 meters; θ h ,air temperature at the height of 5.5 meters; ρ , air density(1.29×10 -3 g/cm 3 ); C p ,air specific heat (1.003 J/g·K); D , turbulent exchange coefficient(0.5 cm/s). Because θ h is less affected by the earth surface, and Δ θ is much less than Δ θ w, Δ P could be expressed as ΔP=ρC pDΔθ w  Thus, Δf can be calculated as follows: Δf=(LΔr+QΔα+βΔθ w)/L β=4sσθ 3 w+ρC pD =0.071 J/(min·K) Regional actual evapotranspiration ( E ) could be calculated by the model developed by Zhou Guangsheng and Zhang Xinshi(1995): E=r·Rn(r 2+Rn 2+r·Rn)(r+Rn)(r 2+Rn 2) The difference Δ E between E a (after the surface is changed) and E 0 (before the surface is changed) can be obtained asΔE=E a-E 0=r a·Rn a ( r 2 a+Rn 2 a+r a·Rn a )( r a+Rn a )( r 2 a+Rn 2 a ) -r 0·Rn 0 ( r 2 0+Rn 2 0+r 0·Rn 0 ) ( r 0+Rn 0 )( r 2 0+Rn 2 0) Δf=Δr-ΔE The effect of vegetation on climate can be assessed according to these equations above. Feedback of plant on climate mainly includes two parts: temperature and precipitation. As many scientists pointed out that vegetation affects precipitation much less than plant affects temperature. The Δ f can be calculated by two following equations: Δf=(QΔα+βΔθ w)/L Δf=-ΔE=r 0·Rn 0(r 2 0+Rn 2 0+r 0·Rn 0)(r 0+Rn 0)(r 2 0+Rn 2 0)-r 0·Rn a(r 2 0+Rn 2 a+r 0·Rn a)(r 0+Rn a)(r 2 0+Rn 2 a) The authors find that the run off would decrease because vegetation would decrease surface reflectivity. In general, vegetation has the function of slowing climate change. According to the discussion above, the effect of plan

根据地球表面两个平衡方程:热量平衡方程和水量平衡方程初步探讨了植被对于气候的反馈作用。研究结果指出,植被对于全球气候变化有减缓作用,植被的存在将使一地的径流量减少,增加了保水能力,对于一地降水量无显著影响,而对于气候变化的作用是增温还是降温须视具体地点的情况而定。对于中纬度地区,当某一区域的径流量的变化与下垫面反射率的变化满足关系:Δf = 5Δα×10- 4g/(cm 2·m in)时,地表温度并不因为下垫面反射率或径流量的变化而变化。这一研究结果还表明在制定全球变化对陆地生态系统影响对策时必须因地制宜,以保证地球成为一个适于人类生存与持续发展的生命支持系统

 
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