The applications of TEM and XRD for the research of physical properties of Pt/C electrochemical catalysts and alloy catalysts in PEMFC and the applications of EIS for the research of the influence of PTFE and Nafion contents in MEA, charge transfer reaction kinetics and diffusion kinetics, water transport and water management were reviewed with 25 references.
The relational expression of water flux established may simplify the exis- ting models, and provide a new theoretic proposition for analyzing the trans- port processes of water in wood particles under non-isothermal condition The facilitating theoretic model would be convenient in application.
From the aspects of theory and application, the development of bipolar membrane electrodialysis technology in recent years was reviewed. This paper introduced not only the new progress of bipolar membrane in the fields of theory, the dissociation and transport of water molecule, ion transport and operation process et al; but also the practical applications in the organic acid preparation, environment protection, food & medicinal industry and other fields.
Hydrodynamic conditions are determined under which the total water flux on a solid surface is zero.
Analyses on the responses of ocean circulation to the changes of surface fresh water or salinity forcing show that the ocean spin-up stage under flux condition for salinity is the key to the implementation of air-sea fresh water flux coupling.
This study also demonstrates that the Modified-Monthly-Flux-Anomaly coupling scheme (MMFA) brought forward by Yu and Zhang (1998) is suitable not only for daily air-sea heat flux coupling but also for daily fresh water flux coupling.
The results revealed that the modified version of the SDGVM did a reasonable job of simulating the carbon and water flux and the variation of soil water content (SWC).
Enhanced water flux was obtained since the total driving force of the coupled process was higher than the sum of the driving forces of single processes.