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排盐     
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  salt exclusion
     In conclusion, P. euphratica has a greater ability on selective ion uptake, salt exclusion and ion compartmentation under saline conditions, which contribute to salt tolerance.
     总之 ,胡杨在盐胁迫条件下具有较高的排盐性和离子选择性 ,并能将盐离子区隔于液泡中 ,这是其耐盐性强的重要基础
短句来源
     (3)Salt exclusion by roots was the most important salt tolerant mechanism of all mangroves. Keeping lower salt contents in above ground organs was the common feature of all mangroves.
     (3)根系拒盐是所有红树植物最重要的排盐机制 ,在满足细胞渗透调节的前提下 ,保持地上部分器官较低的盐分浓度是所有红树植物的共同特点 ;
短句来源
     It is suggested that the salt exclusion effect during hydrate formation will cause a salinity increase of pore waters in the hydrate roof zone and shallow subseafloor sediments due to fluid diffusion.
     由于水合物形成过程中的排盐效应, 会使其上覆浅表层沉积物中孔隙水的盐度增高, 因此这些氯离子的高值异常区值得进一步的勘查。
短句来源
  salt discharge
     Modification of Salt Discharge System in Vacuum Pan Salt Making
     真空制盐排盐系统改造
短句来源
     Therefore the content of CaCO\-3 must be account when considering the total soluble saline and salt discharge design.
     从而为中游盆地土壤可溶盐含量计算和排盐设计找到了理论依据。
短句来源
  salt draining
     The Discussion and Research on the Technologies of Afforestation and Salt Draining Engineering in Coastal Wasteland
     滨海海涂地区绿化及排盐工程技术探讨与研究
短句来源
  “排盐”译为未确定词的双语例句
     The larger the gas is consumed, the bigger the salt-removing effect is. Na~+、Ca~(2+) have the most significant variety ratio.
     受排盐效应影响的六种主要离子(K~+、Na~+、Ca~(2+)、Mg~(2+)、SO_4~(2-)、Cl~-)中,Na~+、Ca~(2+)离子浓度变化较大,K~+变化最小。
短句来源
     It indicated that leaves of salt-tolerant species had higher re-transport capability of 22Na to underground part, and helped to reduce the shoot 22Na content of salt-tolerant species.
     ~(22)Na和NaCl分根试验表明,耐盐种较高的根系排盐能力和再循环总盐量使其地上部盐含量进一步降低。
短句来源
     By comparing three typical sites for leaching experiments of dissolvable salt of soil, the solution is that the effect wouldn′t be distinct if the total salinity was less chan 1-1\^5% (mean salt content of soils with in 0-100?cm in soil profile).
     对比3组典型的原位淋滤试验资料,认为当工程排盐时土壤含盐量达1%~1 5%(0~100cm平均含盐量),以后洗盐效果不明显;
短句来源
     The contents of SO42-and Ca2+ ions in surface soil of the whole section salinized soil increased under irrigation quota 3 600 m3/hm2 than 6 000 m3/hm2.It is not suitable to change original soil into irrigated one in initial stage of irrigation region development.
     通体型盐化土壤灌水后,在3600m3h/m 2灌水定额下,表层土壤SO42-和Ca2+含量较6000m 3h/m 2灌水定额下SO42-和Ca2+含量增加. 因此,该类土壤的灌溉最好在灌区开发先期暂缓旱地改水田,并采取生物改良措施排盐.
短句来源
     shallow\|dense salt drainage system" keep running correctly, in this area, the soil salt content could be controlled below 0.2% with 97.5% probability within 5 years, and make plants free from salt harm.
     土壤盐分的演变规律表明 :通过“浅密式”排盐系统 ,可在不到 5a的时间内 ,便在 97.5 %置信度的保证下 ,将开发区土壤的含盐量控制在 0 .2 %以下 ,基本上解除了土壤盐分对园林植物的危害
短句来源
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  salt exclusion
The salt exclusion effect during the gas hydrate formation will cause an increase in major ion concentrations in the pore waters that diffused upward such as Cl.
      
The tolerant ecotypes accumulated less sodium chloride as compared to the sensitive ecotype, suggesting that salt tolerance is caused in part by salt exclusion.
      
Tissue and cellular ion analysis showed that growth improvement appeared to be the result of increased capacity for salt exclusion and enhancement of Ca2+ uptake.
      
It also appears to develop a salt exclusion mechanism Antagonism of Na and Ca is marked by the poor Ca in the leaves.
      
The inheritance of salt exclusion in woody perennial fruit species
      
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  salt discharge
We hypothesized, however, that the leaching pattern of the main ions may differ regarding their potential contribution to the total salt discharge.
      
These solutes accounted for 88% of total salt discharge under the two irrigation treatments.
      
Data provided by physical scientists and economists are used in a linear programming model to describe salt discharge as a function of water management, production levels, and an associated effluent charge.
      
Four water management activities were chosen on the basis of different costs of production (including a parametrically varied effluent charge), water requirements, alfalfa yields, and levels of salt discharge.
      
Results indicate that when the effluent charge is low (>amp;lt;$0.20/metric ton salt discharged), maximum production with maximum salt discharge is most profitable.
      
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The roles of the natural development and some properties of the soilsin this area are briefly discussed as follows:The soils are saline and calcareous in nature,in which over 70% of thetotal soluble salts are sodium chloride.Slight to moderate alkalinizationmay be developed,while the total soluble salt contents exceed 0.2%;butgenerally,there is no NaCO_3 present.The ground water table in this areais usally high,and the quantity and constituents of the salts in groundwater are directly varied with and influenced...

The roles of the natural development and some properties of the soilsin this area are briefly discussed as follows:The soils are saline and calcareous in nature,in which over 70% of thetotal soluble salts are sodium chloride.Slight to moderate alkalinizationmay be developed,while the total soluble salt contents exceed 0.2%;butgenerally,there is no NaCO_3 present.The ground water table in this areais usally high,and the quantity and constituents of the salts in groundwater are directly varied with and influenced by that contained in the abovesoils.The saline and alkali properties of soils in this area are originatedfrom the parent materials,through the action of the sea water when theywere deposited.As soon as the sea water ceased to affect,the soils as wellas the ground water are gradurally desalinized by natural leaching and thisprocess will be strengthened by the biological activities.As the desalinization of the soils is proceeded further,the ratio ofNa~+/Ca~(++)+Mg~(++)in the soil solution decreased and the amount of the exchan-geable Na on the soil colloidal complex is finally lowered.It is evident thatdesalinization also introduces the dealkalinization of the soils in this area;there is no hazard of strong alkalinization of the soils taken place throughleaching.

本文简要地说明了江苏省沿海地区盐渍土壤的自然发生过程及盐渍特性转化的规律,文中主要论点,可初步归纳如下:1、本区域的土壤,发育于盐渍性的冲积母质,土层中富含以氯化钠为主的可溶性盐类,并呈一定的“碱性”。土壤碱性表现在两方面:一方面是土壤胶体表面存在有较多的吸附性钠,另方面表现在本身具有较高的pH 值。2、在自然发生过程中,土壤盐渍性为地质过程遗留的影响;随受自然降水淋盐,河沟排水排盐及生物作用的影响,开始“脱盐、脱碱”和肥力积累过程,发育成为本区内现存的各种不同盐渍程度的土壤。3、随着土壤脱盐作用的进行,土壤盐渍的组成在变化;主要是可溶性盐阴离子中钠离子的含量淋失较速,最后降低了土壤溶液中Na~+/Ca~(++)比率。由于这种盐渍组成的改变,土壤胶体上吸收性Na~+也相应的降低,从而导致土壤的脱碱作用。因此本区土壤的脱盐不致引起土壤碱化。4、在自然发生过程中,本区域盐渍土的脱盐过程,一直是在潜水位较高的情况下进行的。在脱盐过程中,潜水位经常在临界水位以内,为本区自然脱盐过程中,最大特点;潜水动能和土壤的脱盐过程,存在着许多内在的联系。在一定地区内,一定盐渍程度、盐渍特性的土壤,则常有和其相适应的矿...

本文简要地说明了江苏省沿海地区盐渍土壤的自然发生过程及盐渍特性转化的规律,文中主要论点,可初步归纳如下:1、本区域的土壤,发育于盐渍性的冲积母质,土层中富含以氯化钠为主的可溶性盐类,并呈一定的“碱性”。土壤碱性表现在两方面:一方面是土壤胶体表面存在有较多的吸附性钠,另方面表现在本身具有较高的pH 值。2、在自然发生过程中,土壤盐渍性为地质过程遗留的影响;随受自然降水淋盐,河沟排水排盐及生物作用的影响,开始“脱盐、脱碱”和肥力积累过程,发育成为本区内现存的各种不同盐渍程度的土壤。3、随着土壤脱盐作用的进行,土壤盐渍的组成在变化;主要是可溶性盐阴离子中钠离子的含量淋失较速,最后降低了土壤溶液中Na~+/Ca~(++)比率。由于这种盐渍组成的改变,土壤胶体上吸收性Na~+也相应的降低,从而导致土壤的脱碱作用。因此本区土壤的脱盐不致引起土壤碱化。4、在自然发生过程中,本区域盐渍土的脱盐过程,一直是在潜水位较高的情况下进行的。在脱盐过程中,潜水位经常在临界水位以内,为本区自然脱盐过程中,最大特点;潜水动能和土壤的脱盐过程,存在着许多内在的联系。在一定地区内,一定盐渍程度、盐渍特性的土壤,则常有和其相适应的矿化潜水类型。在自然发生过程中,随土壤的脱盐和盐渍特性的转化,潜水似亦随之发生相应的淡化和化学性质的变化。二者转化趋势,大致相符。彼此间的关系,是互相依存、互相制约的,在不断运动的过程中,似先有土壤的脱盐,而生导向潜水的淡化;但就土壤脱盐的过程言,本身同时又是潜水淡化的结果。5、在土壤脱盐的过程中,土壤盐分的动能比较复杂,一方面是全区土壤不断地脱盐,另方面是在一定的条件下,又可产生局部地区土壤表层的盐渍化。前者为本区盐渍土壤自然发生过程的实质,后者为临时性现象。此种现象,最终亦必随同潜水的转向淡化而逐渐消除。

On the basis of testing 15 sulfonamide derivatives for diuretic actions in rats, 6-compounds [4 highly active: hydrochlorothiazide—HCT, 5-chloro-hydrochlorothiazide—HCT-55, Benzthiazide—CT-S and 3-diethylaminomethyl-hydrochlorothiazide CTo-16: one moderately active: chlorothiazide—CT; and one inactive: 3-(3',4'-dimethoxy-2'-ethyl-carboxylatephenyl)-hydrochlorothiazide—HCT-18] were chosen for comparative study on physiological dispositions in rats. A modification of the method of Baer et al. was used for the...

On the basis of testing 15 sulfonamide derivatives for diuretic actions in rats, 6-compounds [4 highly active: hydrochlorothiazide—HCT, 5-chloro-hydrochlorothiazide—HCT-55, Benzthiazide—CT-S and 3-diethylaminomethyl-hydrochlorothiazide CTo-16: one moderately active: chlorothiazide—CT; and one inactive: 3-(3',4'-dimethoxy-2'-ethyl-carboxylatephenyl)-hydrochlorothiazide—HCT-18] were chosen for comparative study on physiological dispositions in rats. A modification of the method of Baer et al. was used for the determination of these compounds in biological materials. After an oral dose of 20mg/kg, the rate of disappearance of the various compounds from the gastro-intestinal tract was found to follow the decreasing order of HCT-55, CT-S, HCT-16, HCT, CT and HCT-8. This order roughly parallels their oil-water partition coefficients with the exception of HCT-18, which was found to have the highest partition coefficient although absorbed rather slowly. CT was demonstrated to have the lowest partition coefficient which may explain its relatively slow rate of absorption from gastro-intestinal epithelium. In addition, its low pKa value (the pKa_1 of CT was found to be 6.7, while those of all other compounds investigated were between 9.0—9.2) may also affect its rate of absorption. For all compounds given orally, the highest concentrations were found in the kidneys, though three patterns of tissue distribution were observed: CT, HCT and HCT-55 were all characterized by a specific affinity for the kidney tissue and very low levels in other organs; DSA was distributed rather non-specifically in various tissues; while for CT-S and HCT-16, equally high levels were found both in the kidneys and in the liver. When given orally, the rate of excretion of the compounds in the urine was found to be essentially parallel to the rapidity of disappearance from the gastro-intestinal tract, i.e., HCT-55 > CT-S > HCT > HCT-16 > CT. After intravenous injection, nearly all of the administered dose of CT-S and HCT was found in the first five-hour urine. The percentages of urinary excretion of HCT-55, HCT-16, CT, DSA and HCT-18 were found to be 92%, 84%, 79%, 58% and 29%, respectively. The possible relationships between the characteristics of the renal transport of these compounds and their diuretic potencies are discussed in some detail.

曾观察17个双磺胺类及苯骈噻二嗪类衍生物对大鼠的利尿、排盐及排钾作用,结果表明双磺胺类作用较差;双氢氯噻嗪(HCT)类中,3位氢原子为简单基团取代的化合物(HCT-6,HCT-13,HCT-14及HCT-16)仍保留与HCT相近的利尿与排盐作用,但为芳香基取代的HCT-18卽无利尿活性,5-氯-双氢氯噻嗪(HCT-55)及Benzthiazide(CT-S)的利尿作用与HCT相等。对其中6种化合物(CT,HCT,HCT-16,CT-S,HCT-55及HCT-18)进行了在大鼠体内代谢特点的研究。发现口服后,所有这些化合物均主要以未变形式自尿排出。各化合物自胃腸道消失的速度与化合物的油/水分布系数有平行关系(HCT-18例外):HCT-55分布系数较大,吸收最快;反之,CT的分布系数最小,而且pKa值鞍低(CT的pKa_1为6.7,其他化合物的pKa_1均在9.0—9.2),吸收亦最慢。各种化合物均在腎(或肝及腎)分布最高,其他各脏均无明显堆积。口服后药物自尿的排泄速度基本上与自胃腸道消失的速度平行;静脉注射后,则以CT-S,HCT及HCT-55排泄最快,CT和DSA较慢,HCT-18最...

曾观察17个双磺胺类及苯骈噻二嗪类衍生物对大鼠的利尿、排盐及排钾作用,结果表明双磺胺类作用较差;双氢氯噻嗪(HCT)类中,3位氢原子为简单基团取代的化合物(HCT-6,HCT-13,HCT-14及HCT-16)仍保留与HCT相近的利尿与排盐作用,但为芳香基取代的HCT-18卽无利尿活性,5-氯-双氢氯噻嗪(HCT-55)及Benzthiazide(CT-S)的利尿作用与HCT相等。对其中6种化合物(CT,HCT,HCT-16,CT-S,HCT-55及HCT-18)进行了在大鼠体内代谢特点的研究。发现口服后,所有这些化合物均主要以未变形式自尿排出。各化合物自胃腸道消失的速度与化合物的油/水分布系数有平行关系(HCT-18例外):HCT-55分布系数较大,吸收最快;反之,CT的分布系数最小,而且pKa值鞍低(CT的pKa_1为6.7,其他化合物的pKa_1均在9.0—9.2),吸收亦最慢。各种化合物均在腎(或肝及腎)分布最高,其他各脏均无明显堆积。口服后药物自尿的排泄速度基本上与自胃腸道消失的速度平行;静脉注射后,则以CT-S,HCT及HCT-55排泄最快,CT和DSA较慢,HCT-18最慢。本文还討論了这些化合物在腎脏的轉运特点与产生利尿作用之间的可能联系。本文曾经雷海鹏及金蔭昌二先生指正,特此致谢。

Investigation and field experiment on the water and salt regime of paddy soils were carried out in the depression area along the Yellow River in Fengqiu county, Honan Province. The results obtained are as follows:

我们从1976年开始,在河南省封丘县进行了关于黄河背河洼地低矿化地下水条件下的稻区水盐状况方面的调查和定位试验,试验结果表明: 1.背河洼地地下水矿化度不高,土壤应该不容易盐渍化,但由于主要为轻壤土和砂壤土,毛管传导性强,盐分向地表累积,产生盐害。种稻之所以能改良盐渍土,是因为稻田淹灌水,有淋洗土壤盐分和淡化地下水的作用。2.稻田灌水引起周围地下水位抬高,是稻田周围土壤次生盐渍化的主要原因。次生盐渍化由稻田附近向外发展,一方面是由于稻田边缘的地下水位比远处为高,土壤返盐快。另一方面是因为稻田周围土壤水分存在着水势梯度、水盐由稻田附近总水势高的地方,向远处总水势低的地方移动和累积。3.背河洼地排水困难,地下水位浅,稻田回旱以后,轻质土容易返盐。引黄放淤,地表淤积粘土,粘土层有很好的抑制返盐作用。粘土愈厚,返盐愈慢。4.灌排渠系是调控稻区水盐运行的重要措施,背河洼地排水系统由临时毛排以及农排与支排组成。毛排和农排主要是配合灌渠调节水分,排盐作用不大,深度和间距可以适当放宽。支排有排盐和排地下水作用,对土壤改良影响很大,深度不宜过浅,间距亦不可过大。水旱交界处布置深而通畅的截渗沟,对防治稻田...

我们从1976年开始,在河南省封丘县进行了关于黄河背河洼地低矿化地下水条件下的稻区水盐状况方面的调查和定位试验,试验结果表明: 1.背河洼地地下水矿化度不高,土壤应该不容易盐渍化,但由于主要为轻壤土和砂壤土,毛管传导性强,盐分向地表累积,产生盐害。种稻之所以能改良盐渍土,是因为稻田淹灌水,有淋洗土壤盐分和淡化地下水的作用。2.稻田灌水引起周围地下水位抬高,是稻田周围土壤次生盐渍化的主要原因。次生盐渍化由稻田附近向外发展,一方面是由于稻田边缘的地下水位比远处为高,土壤返盐快。另一方面是因为稻田周围土壤水分存在着水势梯度、水盐由稻田附近总水势高的地方,向远处总水势低的地方移动和累积。3.背河洼地排水困难,地下水位浅,稻田回旱以后,轻质土容易返盐。引黄放淤,地表淤积粘土,粘土层有很好的抑制返盐作用。粘土愈厚,返盐愈慢。4.灌排渠系是调控稻区水盐运行的重要措施,背河洼地排水系统由临时毛排以及农排与支排组成。毛排和农排主要是配合灌渠调节水分,排盐作用不大,深度和间距可以适当放宽。支排有排盐和排地下水作用,对土壤改良影响很大,深度不宜过浅,间距亦不可过大。水旱交界处布置深而通畅的截渗沟,对防治稻田周围盐渍化有一定的效果。5.背河洼地种稻时还必须考虑:(1)根据灌排条件,确定种稻面积;(2)井渠结合,以井水补河水之不足,井灌并有排水作用;(3)稻改与引黄放淤结合,上游放淤,下游稻改;(4)稻田连片布置,减少对旱地的不良影响。

 
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