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  top surface
     In contrast to the structure of co-mmon asymmetric membranes, the active layer of the PVDF membra-nes is the bottom surface and the sponge-type structure near the bot-tom surface instead of the top surface of membrane.
     与一般情况不同,所得膜的孔径控制层为下表层及靠近下表层的海绵状结构而不是上表层
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  “上表层”译为未确定词的双语例句
     (Cyst) abundance was very high with a maximum concentration of 1.12×10~5/g, and the average concentrations in the upper 12cm layers of sediments in S1 to S3 were 4.13,2.02 and 1.14×10~4/g respectively.
     孢囊数量十分高,3个站位上表层12cm沉积物中孢囊的平均数量分别为4 13、2 02、1 14×104/g,最高达1 12×105/g。
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     In a layer from 30 to 100 cm soil moisture content tends to be steady.
     在深度上,表层10 cm水分含量最低,0~30 cm内由上到下水分迅速增加,从30 cm以下到100 cm趋于稳定。
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     Distribution of mercury in the surface water, in a section of Pacific Ocean
     太平洋某断面上表层海水中汞的分布
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     Results indicate that soil microbial populations (0-7cm layer) are obviously larger than that under conventional tillage treatment.
     结果表明:免耕上表层土壤(0-7cm)中微生物数量明显高于常耕;
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     The season change of total phosphorus is similar to phosphate, and average 0.22 μmol/dm~3 in summer and 0.61 μmol/dm~3 in winter respectively. In vertical direction, phosphate, TDP, and TP content is lowest in the upper 50 m water column, and increases linearly rapidly with water depth, increases slowly under 500 m, reaches to maximum about 1 000 m, then decreases slightly with water depth increasing.
     总磷含量的季节变化与无机磷酸盐类似,夏、冬季含量分别为0 22,0 61μmol/dm3.在垂向分布上表层50m水柱中PO3-4-P,总溶解态磷和总磷含量最小,随水深增加基本上呈线性快速增加,至500m增加减缓,1000m左右为最大含量,然后随着水深略有下降.
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     Calculation of surface static correction value
     表层静校正量计算
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     A number of giant cells were seen among other cells.
     表层巨大细胞;
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     on the surface level, they interact.
     在语言表层,它们相互影响。
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     SURFACE CURRENT IN BOHAI BAY OBSERVED ON ERTS IMAGERY
     从ERTS图象观测渤海湾表层
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  top surface
The obtained data for the pressure distribution in front of the step, and on its face and top surface, and the results of probe measurements in the separation and adjacent regions provide a more accurate scheme of the flow.
      
Optical thickness variations of a three-layer object and its top surface shape were measured simultaneously by a wavelength-scanning Fizeau interferometer.
      
The plateau has a relatively smooth top surface crossed by a series of rises of the acoustic basement.
      
These cavities, some of which have amorphous inner walls, are arrayed parallel to the top surface.
      
It was found that the perpendicular fluctuation of the film's bottom surface was more remarkable than that of the film's top surface.
      
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In this paper an idea of existing a nutation partition layer (probably a thin layer) in superficial region of the Earth is introduced and therefore a new nutation model is advanced. Equations of polar motion based on it and a more universal solution are given. It is proved that partition layer is in the nature of "soft", locates at depth of about 300 km. Its viscosity is about 1010 poises, similar to that of pitch at 15℃ and allowable minimum thickness is possibly less than 1 km. Conclusions are given as following:...

In this paper an idea of existing a nutation partition layer (probably a thin layer) in superficial region of the Earth is introduced and therefore a new nutation model is advanced. Equations of polar motion based on it and a more universal solution are given. It is proved that partition layer is in the nature of "soft", locates at depth of about 300 km. Its viscosity is about 1010 poises, similar to that of pitch at 15℃ and allowable minimum thickness is possibly less than 1 km. Conclusions are given as following: "Chandler frequency" is double, of which one is the frequency of nutation of outer part and other is that of inner of the Earth. The period of " 40" years in amplitude is only a beat of these two frequencies. The ratio in amplitude of two terms responding to these frequencies is about10" 125/0." 175=0.7. The empirical relation between the amplitude and period of C.W. is a direct result of this theory. Abrupt change of arc of polar motion and sudden 180° phase change are substantially different parts of same phenomenon. Both of them depond on relative changes of nutation frequencies of inner and outer part. Value of Q(30-60) determined before is a pseudo-Q. Real value of Q for C.W. is nearly 200, which is in agreement to that from seismic waves. It is predicted that in addition to two main frequencies there is a series of secondary frequencies distributing symmetrically about either of these two main C.W. frequencies, that the raw pole should mainly move to and from along or across the mean trace owing to continuous excitations and exchanges of energies of two parts and that the time constant of C. W. is about 70 and it can nearly be maintained by earthquake excitations.

本文引进了在地球上表层存在一个章动隔离层的概念,从而建立了一种新的章动模型,求出了运动方程及其解。在天体物理中,中子星的自转与章动问题与此类似,本文也许能供研究此类问题时参考。业已证明,地球的隔离层的性质是“软”的,大约位于地表以下300公里的深度。允许的最小厚度小于1公里,它的粘滞率大约为10~(10)泊的量级,相当于沥青在15℃时的情况。结果表明,钱德勒摆动的“主峰”是双频,其一是内主体的章动频率,另一是外体本身的章动频率。由于两个频率的拍频作用而产生钱德勒振幅的40年变化周期。两项的振幅互相影响,因而大小相差不大,它们的近似比值是0.7。著名的钱德勒摆动的振幅-周期关系是本文的直接结果。地极运动弧形的急变与1924—1926年左右的180°相变在本质上是一回事,它们是由内、外体的章动频率的相对变化决定的。过去人们从观测中定出的钱德勒摆动Q值在30—60之间,这是一个假Q值,真正的Q值是200左右,和由地震波定出的Q值一致。本文的解还预言,除两个主频率外,其两旁还对称地分布着一系列(一对以上)次要频率。钱德勒摆动的时间常数约为70年,它近似可由地震激发所维持。它的非平滑运动将主要沿平均迹线方向...

本文引进了在地球上表层存在一个章动隔离层的概念,从而建立了一种新的章动模型,求出了运动方程及其解。在天体物理中,中子星的自转与章动问题与此类似,本文也许能供研究此类问题时参考。业已证明,地球的隔离层的性质是“软”的,大约位于地表以下300公里的深度。允许的最小厚度小于1公里,它的粘滞率大约为10~(10)泊的量级,相当于沥青在15℃时的情况。结果表明,钱德勒摆动的“主峰”是双频,其一是内主体的章动频率,另一是外体本身的章动频率。由于两个频率的拍频作用而产生钱德勒振幅的40年变化周期。两项的振幅互相影响,因而大小相差不大,它们的近似比值是0.7。著名的钱德勒摆动的振幅-周期关系是本文的直接结果。地极运动弧形的急变与1924—1926年左右的180°相变在本质上是一回事,它们是由内、外体的章动频率的相对变化决定的。过去人们从观测中定出的钱德勒摆动Q值在30—60之间,这是一个假Q值,真正的Q值是200左右,和由地震波定出的Q值一致。本文的解还预言,除两个主频率外,其两旁还对称地分布着一系列(一对以上)次要频率。钱德勒摆动的时间常数约为70年,它近似可由地震激发所维持。它的非平滑运动将主要沿平均迹线方向来回运动。

In this paper, we measured the distribution of the weight of seeds on the platform, made a record of flow direction of surface layer and bottom layer materials on the platform.By means of tests, the relationship between vibration and air flow to the process of deviation of material in vertical direction is cleared. Influence of structure parameters and motion parameters on longitudinal staggered motion between surface layer and bottom layer materials are analyzed. Influence of several factors on composition...

In this paper, we measured the distribution of the weight of seeds on the platform, made a record of flow direction of surface layer and bottom layer materials on the platform.By means of tests, the relationship between vibration and air flow to the process of deviation of material in vertical direction is cleared. Influence of structure parameters and motion parameters on longitudinal staggered motion between surface layer and bottom layer materials are analyzed. Influence of several factors on composition moving direction of materials on platform is also discussed.

本文测定了重力式种子精选机台面上物料的粒重分布,记录了台面上表层及底层物料的流动方向。通过实验,搞清了振动及气流对于物料垂向偏析运动的作用效果。分析了结构参数及运动参数对表、底层物料纵向交错运动的关系,讨论了若干因素对物料沿台面合成运动的影响。

The asymmetric microporous hydrophnbic PVDF membranes for membrane distillation were prepared by phase-inversion process with Lithium chloride as the additives.The effects of composition of casting solution,especially Lithium Chloride content,on morphology of the membranes were investigated.The PVDF membranes prepared with Lith-ium Chloride as the additives were characterized by both finger-typestructure and sponge-type structure.In contrast to the structure of co-mmon asymmetric membranes, the active layer...

The asymmetric microporous hydrophnbic PVDF membranes for membrane distillation were prepared by phase-inversion process with Lithium chloride as the additives.The effects of composition of casting solution,especially Lithium Chloride content,on morphology of the membranes were investigated.The PVDF membranes prepared with Lith-ium Chloride as the additives were characterized by both finger-typestructure and sponge-type structure.In contrast to the structure of co-mmon asymmetric membranes, the active layer of the PVDF membra-nes is the bottom surface and the sponge-type structure near the bot-tom surface instead of the top surface of membrane.

利用相转换法以无机盐Li C1为添加剂制备了用于膜蒸馏的疏水聚偏氧乙烯不对称微孔膜。研究了铸膜液组成,特别是添加剂LiC1对膜形态结构的影响。以LiC1为添加剂制得的膜兼有指状孔结构和海绵状孔结构。与一般情况不同,所得膜的孔径控制层为下表层及靠近下表层的海绵状结构而不是上表层

 
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