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平衡斑
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  maculae staticae
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The ultrastructure of vestibular apparatuses in 10 cases of 18-36 weeks human embryo were observed with electron microscope .Comparative studies were made between human and guineapig embryos. The results indicate that in human embryos the general state of the vestibular maculae is similar to that of guinea-pigs, but the maculae are smaller, the sensorial cilia are shorter and the cellular arrangement is not regular. The technique of surface preparation of the vestibular organs is also introduced.

对人胎儿前庭器超微结构的研究,国内外报道甚少。本文对18至36周人胎儿颞骨10具进行了扫描电镜和透射电镜的观察,并对应用Surface preparation法制做人胎儿前庭器标本的方法进行了探讨。本文观察所见:豚鼠平衡斑的生理状态与人胎儿很近似,体面积比人胎儿平衡斑小,感觉毛长,细胞排列更整齐。28周以后的胎儿因前庭周围骨质变硬,制做标本时可以分别取出两囊斑和壶腹嵴。

The concept of open magma system and its main achievements in petrology, experimental petrology and geochemistry are briefly summarized in this paper. In petrology, the evidences of magma mixing, such as the basic magma inclusion in acid igneous rocks, the unequilibrium in porphyritic crystal association and the straight line trend in variation of chemical composition, have been recognized. Experiments show that the mid-ocean ridge basalt has formed from magma fractionation and mixing of evolved magmas, and...

The concept of open magma system and its main achievements in petrology, experimental petrology and geochemistry are briefly summarized in this paper. In petrology, the evidences of magma mixing, such as the basic magma inclusion in acid igneous rocks, the unequilibrium in porphyritic crystal association and the straight line trend in variation of chemical composition, have been recognized. Experiments show that the mid-ocean ridge basalt has formed from magma fractionation and mixing of evolved magmas, and the mixing of rhyolite magma and evolved magma derived from basalt results in basalt-an-desite and dacite magma. In geochemistry, the ratio of Th、Hf、Ta and the Nd-Sr isotope studies indicate that the origin of lavas includes the assimilation of the crust. Using the mixing model of different magmas, the distribution pattern of rare earth elements in volcanic suite has been simulated. The Pb isotope composition and the abundance of 10Be are used as the mark in distinguishing whether the oceanic sediments have taken part in or not. Therefore, the origin of lavas in orogenic belts includes fractionation, assimilation and mixing of magmas.

本文介绍了80年代火成岩研究的新进展之一——开放的岩浆体系.自70年代以来对造山带安山岩系列的研究,促进了开放岩浆体系在火成岩成因研究中的应用.文中概述了开放岩浆体系的概念以及岩石学、实验岩石学和地球化学在开放岩浆体系研究方面所取得的主要成果.在岩石学方面先后论证了酸性岩中具有基性岩浆包体、不平衡的斑晶组合以及岩石化学组成的变异呈直线趋势等不同岩浆混合的证据.实验表明洋中脊玄武岩的形成,既包括分离结晶作用,也包括进化岩浆之间的混合作用;实验还证明流纹岩浆和玄武岩演变的进化岩浆之间的混合是形成玄武安山岩和英安岩岩浆的可能的一种机理.在地球化学方面,根据痕量元素Th.Hf和Ta的比值以及同位素∑_Nd-∑_Sr的演化特征等认为火山熔岩的成因包括同化地壳组分的作用:采用玄武岩和英安岩浆混合作用的模型,较好地模拟了火山岩套的稀土分布形式;并利用铅同位素组提和~(10)Be的丰度作为确定是否有大洋沉积场参与的标志,因而,造山带火山熔岩的成因包括岩浆分离结晶作用、同化作用和混合作用.

 
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