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     On the basis of the studies of graptolite successions from the Xiaoyangqiao near Dayangcha and Qinggouzi sections across the Cambrian-Ordovician boundary five Hunjiangian (or Tremadoc) graptolite zones can be recognized in the 'Yeli Formation' of Hunjiang area, Jilin Province: 1. Rhabdinopora parabola zone, 2. Anisograptus zone, 3.Psigraptus zone, 4. Callograptus?
     根据对吉林省东南浑江大阳岔附近的小杨桥和浑江城附近的青沟子和木掀头沟剖面笔石序列的研究,在该地的“冶里组”中可以划分出以下5个笔石带:1.Rhabdinopora parabola带,2.Anisograptus带,3.Psigraptus带,4.Callograptusg?
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     Indings Report for Micro-valley Climate in Hulutou Gully of Qinglong of Hebei
     河北省青龙县葫芦头沟小流域气候的调查报告
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     Aonther Investigation and Excavation of the Hongshan Stone Tombs at Hutougou,Fuxin,Liaoning
     辽宁阜新县胡头沟红山文化积石冢的再一次调查与发掘
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     The distribution of putative nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-containing cells has been analysed using NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry in the centre nervous system and peripheral tissues in more than 20 ecologically and systematically different genera representing 5 main phylum of invertebrates: Platyhelminthes (Euplanaria gonocephala, Planocera reticulata), Nemertinea(Baseodiscus curtus, Lineus sp.)
     运用NADPH黄递酶组织化学染色方法,对三角真涡虫(Euplanaria gonocephala)、平角涡虫(Planocera reticulata)、短无头沟纽虫(Baseodiscus curtus)、纵沟纽虫(Lineus sp.)
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     It was learned by investigation and analysis that there was abound of radia- nt resources and heat resources in the micro-valley of Hulutao Gully and the precipitetion chang a lot so it was easily drought and easily water logging as well in the area.
     通过调查和分析得知,葫芦头沟小流域辐射资源丰富,热量资源充足,降水变率大,易旱易涝。
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     The Project of Economical and Practical Protecting Gully Head
     一种经济实用的防护工程
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     head continuous with body;
     连续;
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     A STUDY ON LARGE-SCALE CATASTROPHIC LANDSLIDE AT TOUZAI GULLY OF ZHAOTONG
     昭通特大型灾害性滑坡研究
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     Exploring the Grammaticalization of tou (头) in Chinese
     “”的语法化考察
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     Olfactory groove meningioma
     嗅脑膜瘤
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One species of Oesophagostomum from the swine is described and considered as new to science. Oesopkagostomum hsiungi n. sp. may be distinguished from the other species belonging to the same genus by having no cervical groove, no cephalic vesieal and no lateral cervical alae

本文报导了猪的结节虫一新种,定名为熊氏结节虫。这种结节虫缺头泡、头沟和侧翼膜,因之很易区别于他种结节虫。最后,作者建议将熊大仕、孔繁瑶两氏(1955)所拟的家畜结节虫检索表稍加补充,以使新种结节虫也得以包括在内。

Based on the statistical analysis of families, genera and species and comparison of related regions, the flora of Peking has been preliminarily analized by present authors in following aspects. 1. The elements of Peking flora. (1) Statistical analysis of femilies, genera and species. a) According to the enumeration of "The Peking Flora" the vascular plants of Peking are belonging to 153 fatuities, 751 genera and 1025 species. b) Analysis of major families. Among Angiosperms 10 leading families are taken for...

Based on the statistical analysis of families, genera and species and comparison of related regions, the flora of Peking has been preliminarily analized by present authors in following aspects. 1. The elements of Peking flora. (1) Statistical analysis of femilies, genera and species. a) According to the enumeration of "The Peking Flora" the vascular plants of Peking are belonging to 153 fatuities, 751 genera and 1025 species. b) Analysis of major families. Among Angiosperms 10 leading families are taken for accounting percentage of their number of species as follows: Compositae, 10% Gramineae, 9% Leguminosae, 6% Rosaceae, 6% Liliaceae, 4% Cyperaceae, 4% Umbelliferae, 3.8% Ranunculaceae, 3.6% Cruciferae, 2% Caryophyllaceae, 2% c) Statistics of ligneous plants. Woody plants exclusive of the cultivated ones there are 45 families, 96 genera and 199 species; that is about 29% to the total number of vascular plants. (2) The endemics: The endemics are not strictly restricted to the Peking area, they are also generally found in North China. Accooding to the records and specimens collected there are about 7 spp. which may be considered as endemics, such as Clematis acerifolia Maxim. in Paihuashan and Shangfangshan; Cnidium Smithii (Wolff) W. T. Wang in Paihuashan and Yangjaping) Ligusticum Wawrae Wolff in Chiehtai Sze of Mentougou. Besides, there are about 25 spp. which are distributed correspondingly to the mountain range of North China, as Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bge., a monotypie genera occurs almost over North China. (3) The comparison between flora of major regions in Peking: In order to define the floristie characters of different regions of Peking, the authors select Potou, Paihuashan, Kingshan, Shangfangshan, Tancheh Sze and Haitien as 6 major points to make some comparison. According to thedistribution of woody plants in different regions an index of similarity is obtained by calculation and comparison. From Table (1) it shows that the flora of hilly region is more similar to that of the plain (index number=0.75) , and that of Potou and Paihuashan is also closely related (0.77), but the fora of rugged mountainous regions and plain are quite different. Among the 6 regions, hence, there is difference not only between the abundance of spp., but also the composition concerned. (4) Comparison of Peking flora with adjacent regions. By means of the same procedure, the index of similarity shows that, firstly, the ligneous flora of Peking are more closely related to North-east China (0.7). Secondly, it also has intimate relation with the flora of Honan Province, but in the latter nu merous Mid-China elememts are interfused. Thirdly, there are some distinct differences between flora of Peking and Sonthern part of Kiangsu Province. Lastly, the Peking flora appears to have loose relation with flora of Shantung Province and its relation with loes plateau ia also concerned. As stated above, this material seems to have some value of reference as a criterion in dividing the North China flora into provinces and snb-provinces. (5) Monotypic genera: Among the 10 monotypic genera in Peking flora recorded by Bunge (1833) only 4 are recognized as really monotypic at present, they are Xanthoceras, Oresttrophe, Hernistepta, Anemarrhena. (6) The transitional characters of elements of Peking flora: Due to its geographical and geological situation Peking flora has its European-Sibiria elements and Northeast China dements as the southern border, and on the contrary, some elements of tropical origin meet their north bonder just within this area. 2. Origin of Peking flora and its division. By the analysis stated above, it shows that Peking flora is practically as a part of North China flora. In Peking flora there are numerous elements as the relics of Tertiary flora, meanwhile*some migrating elements from other regions are also present, especially in plain. Elements of tropical origin as components of Peking flora indicate that they were either as remnants of tropical climate during geological time or as migrants after glaciation. For the furfher division of Peking flora, extensive work should be done to give a real prospect. It is difficult to define those limitations at present. However, it is evident to note that flora of rugged mountainous region, low hilly rigion and plain are very different, flora of western part and eastern part of rugged mountainous region are also quite unlike; this seems as an useful reference for floristic division of Peking area.

一、北京的植物区系成分 1.科、属、种的统计和分析。 (1) 区系统计:根据“北京植物志”记载,北京共有维管束植物153科、75属、1025种。 (2) 主要科的分析;被子植物中10个主要科依次为: 菊科(Compositae),10%禾本科(Gramineae),9%豆科(Leguminosae),6%蔷薇科(Rosaceae),6%百合科(Liliaceae),4%莎草科(Cyperaceae),4%繖形科(Umbelliferae),3.8%毛茛科(Ranunculaceae),3.6%十字花科(Cruciferae),2%石竹科(Caryophyllaceae),2% (3) 木本植物统计:共有自生木本植物45科、96属、199种,豹占维管束植物的总数的19%,属的总数的13%弱。 2.特有植物:北京特有植物多与华北区系共有,根据标本与记载可以作为北京特有种的共7—9种,如槭叶铁线莲(Clematis acerifolia Maxim.)产于百花山、上方山,北京蛇床(cnidium Smithii(Wolff)W.T.Wang)特产于百花山、杨家坪,北京当归(Ligusticum Wawrae Wol...

一、北京的植物区系成分 1.科、属、种的统计和分析。 (1) 区系统计:根据“北京植物志”记载,北京共有维管束植物153科、75属、1025种。 (2) 主要科的分析;被子植物中10个主要科依次为: 菊科(Compositae),10%禾本科(Gramineae),9%豆科(Leguminosae),6%蔷薇科(Rosaceae),6%百合科(Liliaceae),4%莎草科(Cyperaceae),4%繖形科(Umbelliferae),3.8%毛茛科(Ranunculaceae),3.6%十字花科(Cruciferae),2%石竹科(Caryophyllaceae),2% (3) 木本植物统计:共有自生木本植物45科、96属、199种,豹占维管束植物的总数的19%,属的总数的13%弱。 2.特有植物:北京特有植物多与华北区系共有,根据标本与记载可以作为北京特有种的共7—9种,如槭叶铁线莲(Clematis acerifolia Maxim.)产于百花山、上方山,北京蛇床(cnidium Smithii(Wolff)W.T.Wang)特产于百花山、杨家坪,北京当归(Ligusticum Wawrae Wolff)特产于门头沟的戒台寺,此外与华北共有的特有种约20余种,如文冠果(Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bge.)。 3.北京市各主要地区植物区系的比较,为了确定北京各地区区系特点,选择坡头、百花山、金山、上方山、潭柘寺和海淀区进行了区系统计,并根据木本植物的分布求出各地区之间的相似性的指标,结果表明低山区与平原区的区系最为亲近(0.75以上);坡头和百花山之间的关系也很紧密(0.77),而深山区与平原区的区系有显著的区别。区系统计方面,6个地区不但种的丰富程度和主要科的比重各有不同,种类成分也有差異。 4.北京地区与邻近地区植物区系的比较:根据北京木本植物区系与东北、山东、泰山、河南、苏南等地区的木本植物相似性指标可以看出,北京区系与东北区系的相似性最大(0.7),并指出很多华北成分与东北南部共通。次为河南(0.67),但河南南部有大量华中成分侵入,形成显著的区别,而和苏南以及山东半岛区系的差别比较明显。此外,指出北京区系与山东区系的关系较为疏远,也指出了北京区系与黄土高原区系的联系,这些材料对划分华北区系中省和亚省的范围有一定参考价值。 5.单种属:1883年Bunge描述的10个单种属尚有4种是单种属,即独根草属(Oresitrophe)、文冠果属(Xanthoceras)、泥胡菜属(Hamistepta)和知母属(Anemarrhena)。 6.北京植物区系的过渡性:北京地区处于华北植物省的边缘,成为欧洲——西伯利亚植物区系和我国东北地区区系分布的南界,而是热带超缘科属分布的北界,后者共28科,约30属以上。二、关于区系超源和区划根据以上分析可以看出北京植物区系实际上是华北植物区系的一部分,很多特有种和华北区是共同的,表明北京区系的形成和发展与华北及东北南部区系形成和发展是一致的。北京区系及华北区系中既有大量的第三纪植物区系的残遗,也有不少迁移而来的区系成分,在平原低山区更为显著。不少是有热带亲缘科属及其中华北特有属的存在说明可能有部分植物是在地史上的热带气候下产生而残留至今,或是冰期后重新迁移而来的。在区系区划方面,很多调查工作还待进行,尚难确定各小区的界限。但从北京各地区的自然地理条件、区系特点和植被特点的比较来看,深山区和平原低山丘陵区的差别显著,东部深山区和西部深山区有所不同,平原区和低山区也有一定的差别,又各有一定的特有种,都可作为区系区划的参考。

During 1976 to 1977 the percentage of the viruliferous planthoppers(Laode-lphax strietellus)in Hojiazhai,Hobei province was surveyed.In spring it was 31-52%while in autumn 12-35.4%.The percentage varied significantly in the coll-ections from various localities but not from the same locality,A correlationwas demonstrated between the indices of effective transmission(number of plant-hopper collected x % of viruliferous individuals)and % diseased plants.Onbasis of the data obtained during the field surveys during...

During 1976 to 1977 the percentage of the viruliferous planthoppers(Laode-lphax strietellus)in Hojiazhai,Hobei province was surveyed.In spring it was 31-52%while in autumn 12-35.4%.The percentage varied significantly in the coll-ections from various localities but not from the same locality,A correlationwas demonstrated between the indices of effective transmission(number of plant-hopper collected x % of viruliferous individuals)and % diseased plants.Onbasis of the data obtained during the field surveys during 1975 to 1976,a regressioncurve was plotted and the formula was calculated as Y=4.12x-2.577.Wherethe r=0.976.Therefore the correlation was considered as very significant.If the indices of effective transmission between 0.7-20.9 were employed to cal-culate the % disease plants to develope later in the growing season,an epiphyto-tics would be possible to be forecasted.Inoculation tests revealed thatthe earlier the infection takes place,the more severe will be the disease develop-ment.Infections took place in the early seedling stage of wheat plants usuallyled to the death of the plants,Therefore the early autumnal infections mightresult as high as 95.6% of death while the spring infections caused no deathof plants and a lowr disease index 57.6。There were two migration peakes ofthe insect vectors.The one was in the early part of november when he winter wheatwere in at state of emergence or just at the early seedlihg stage.This infectionled to a peak of disease development in the later of november.The other peakof migration was in the mid of april when the wheat was just after overwinter-ing.This spring infection led to another peak of disease development in May,however it caused less damage.The length of incubation period of the virus(NCMV)in the winter wheat plants varied with the time of infection,especia-lly with the growth activities of the wheat plants.It ranged from 5-8 daysand 30-40 days.If the infection took place just before overwintering of thewheat plants,the symptoms did not appear unitl the next spring.The insect vectorstided over winters in the form of 3-4 star nymphs of the 5th generation underthe winter wheat plants or ofe ggs on grasses.They oversummered in fields of sum-mer crops.Although they were able to oviposit on corn plants yet they couldnot subsist on it.The disease became more prevalent where the intercroppingsystem of winter wheat and-corn or sorghum or cotton had been practiced,since the grass weeds under the summer crops provided a favorable ground forthe insect vectors as well as the virus to multiply.

1976—1977年河北晋县贺家寨大队小麦春季灰飞虱的传带病毒率为31—52%,不同地块同代灰飞虱的带毒率异差较大:而秋苗期则为12—35.4%,其中不同地块上同代(四代成虫)灰飞虱的带毒率的差异从33.3%至35.4%则不太大。灰飞虱的有效传毒指数(即虫口数×自然带毒率)同田间小麦发病率的相关性是非常显著的,其r=0.9769。1975—1976两年调查及计算分析结果,其直线回归公式如y=4.12x-2.577。在有效传毒指数0.7—20.9之间用于予测发病率有效。人工分期侵染试验证明小麦在生长发育过程中受侵愈早,病情愈重,其中死株率也愈大。秋季侵染的死株率达95.6%,病指为99.6;夏季侵染的死株率为0,病指为57.6。秋季小麦出苗前后的大量虫口形成小麦10月中下旬的一个发病高峰,第二年春季4月中旬的虫口高峰形成5月上旬的一个发病高峰。3月下旬的一个发病高峰是越冬前受侵的。病毒在小麦植株中的潜育期的长短随小麦的生长速度而异。温度不过其中因素之一,最短5—8天,最长30—40天。侵染后如小麦进入越冬期,即不表现症状,一直要到返青以后。介体灰飞虱在河北晋县以第五代3—4龄若虫在冬麦地及草荒中越冬。夏季在玉米...

1976—1977年河北晋县贺家寨大队小麦春季灰飞虱的传带病毒率为31—52%,不同地块同代灰飞虱的带毒率异差较大:而秋苗期则为12—35.4%,其中不同地块上同代(四代成虫)灰飞虱的带毒率的差异从33.3%至35.4%则不太大。灰飞虱的有效传毒指数(即虫口数×自然带毒率)同田间小麦发病率的相关性是非常显著的,其r=0.9769。1975—1976两年调查及计算分析结果,其直线回归公式如y=4.12x-2.577。在有效传毒指数0.7—20.9之间用于予测发病率有效。人工分期侵染试验证明小麦在生长发育过程中受侵愈早,病情愈重,其中死株率也愈大。秋季侵染的死株率达95.6%,病指为99.6;夏季侵染的死株率为0,病指为57.6。秋季小麦出苗前后的大量虫口形成小麦10月中下旬的一个发病高峰,第二年春季4月中旬的虫口高峰形成5月上旬的一个发病高峰。3月下旬的一个发病高峰是越冬前受侵的。病毒在小麦植株中的潜育期的长短随小麦的生长速度而异。温度不过其中因素之一,最短5—8天,最长30—40天。侵染后如小麦进入越冬期,即不表现症状,一直要到返青以后。介体灰飞虱在河北晋县以第五代3—4龄若虫在冬麦地及草荒中越冬。夏季在玉米上可以产卵并孵化,但不能长期存活,主要在地头沟边及夏作物荫蔽下的禾草上越夏。冬麦治虫防病的重点应在秋季麦苗出土前,春季则应在3月中旬左右。冬麦适当推迟播种有利于减少发病率。棉间作麦比平作的病情重六倍而粮麦间作的病情比平作的重九倍。

 
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