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外侧头
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  lateral head
     The length of the branches to medial head and lateral head of triceps muscle was (66.08 ± 30.98) mm,(65.81±30.65) mm.
     内、外侧头肌支长 ( 66.0 8± 3 0 .98)mm和 ( 65 .81± 3 0 .65 )mm。
短句来源
     The atraumatic detachment length of the branch to the long head, medial head and lateral head of triceps muscle was (48.93 ± 9.27) mm,(44.22 ± 11.65) mm, and (44.64 ± 9.04) mm, respectively.
     长头肌支和内、外侧头肌支的无损伤分离长度是 ( 4 8.93± 9.2 7)mm、( 4 4.2 2± 11.65 )mm和 ( 4 4.64± 9.0 4)mm。
短句来源
     The nerve and blood vessel pedicle run the muscle in the muscle part. The distance between the initial point of the muscle part and the position of the nerve and vessel pedicle coming into muscle were (7.2±1.4)cm of the media head and (5.9±1.3)cm of the lateral head.
     神经血管蒂在肌侧入肌,肌肉起点至血管神经蒂入肌长度内侧头为(7.2±1.4)cm,外侧头为(5.9±1.3)cm;
短句来源
     Lateral head of gastrocnemius muscle was supplied by muscle cutaneous perforating branches of peroneal lateral artery, which sent 2~5 branches with average diameter 0.2~1.2 mm.
     腓肠外侧动脉发2~5支外径0.2~1.2mm肌皮穿支,营养腓肠肌外侧头及相应区域皮肤。
短句来源
     RESULTS:Anatomy research shows that the distance of radial nerve from its origin to the first branch of long head of triceps was (8.2±1.4) cm; distance of the first nerve branch of triceps long head and the last branch of lateral head was (4.8±0.7) cm.
     结果:解剖学研究显示:桡神经从后侧束发出部位到发出肱三头肌长头的第一支肌支之间的距离为(8.2±1.4)cm,从发出长头的第一个肌支部位到外侧头最后一个肌支发出部位之间的距离为(4.8±0.7)cm。
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  caput laterale
     ③The muscle cutaneous perforating branches of artery of caput mediale of musculi gastrocnemii and caput laterale originated from 2-6 branches, which provided nutrition for cutaneous nerve and superficial vein along the way.
     ③腓肠肌内、外侧头动脉沿途发2~6支的肌皮穿支营养皮神经浅静脉。
短句来源
     The results recorded from the nerve endings in the caput mediale and the caput laterale of the gastrocnemius muscles did not differ.
     腓肠肌外侧头神经终支结果与内侧头相同。
短句来源
  “外侧头”译为未确定词的双语例句
     There were six sural nerve musculocutaneous flaps with the size from 6.0 cm×5.0 cm×1.0 cm to 10.0 cm×7.0 cm×2.0 cm.
     6例设计为肌皮瓣(腓肠肌外侧头),肌瓣最大为10.0cm×7.0cm×2.0cm,最小为6.0cm×5.0cm×1.0cm。
短句来源
     The rate of the red muscle fibers of GMH and GLH is 42.9%~44.4%, the intermediate fibers 32.4%~32.6%, the white fibers 23.4%~24.5%.
     内侧头和外侧头红肌纤维占42.9%~44.4%,中间肌纤维占32.4%~32.6%,白肌纤维占23.4%~24.5%。
短句来源
     H (cm)=6.78 + 0.06 age (year) + 0.11 body-high (year).
     H反射(外侧头 ) =6 .78+0 .0 6年龄 +0 .11身高 (cm)。
短句来源
     The nerve to the medial gastrocnemius muscle and the nerve to the lateral gastrocnemius muscle branch off at (-6.6±13.7)mm and (2.4±16.7)mm; the width are (2.3±0.4)mm and (2.5±0.4)mm; the length are (42±12)mm and (50±13)mm.
     腓肠肌内侧头肌支和腓肠肌外侧头肌支起点的平均高度分别为(-6.6±13.7)mm(、2.4±16.7)mm,神经起始处宽度分别为(2.3±0.4)mm(、2.5±0.4)mm,从起点到肌门处神经长度分别为(42±12)mm(、50±13)mm。
短句来源
     The nerve branches to the long,lateral and medial heads of triceps brachii were respectively 45.6 ± 1.8mm , 44.6±1.7mm and 54.6±1.7mm in the length of attraumatic detachment;
     外侧头肌支无损伤分离长度为44.6±1.7mm,横径为0.9±0.2mm,纤维数为341±30根;
短句来源
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  lateral head
The circulatory system includes a pair of lateral head lacunae and a short ventral lacuna.
      
Treatment effects and post-retention changes up to 4 to 5 years out of retention at the age of 20 to 22 years were evaluated from lateral head films and plaster casts.
      
The computer-aided method presented is able to interpret and measure radiological structures automatically and reproducibly on a large number of randomly selected lateral head films of different film quality.
      
Lateral head radiographs and dental casts were available at the start of treatment, after molar distalisation, at the end of treatment and 1 year post-treatment.
      
The new species belongs to the verrucosa species-group of the genus Alona by the presence two semi-circles of lateral head pores.
      
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  caput laterale
The reverse effect was observed in caput mediale, whereas no difference in recruitment thresholds was found in caput laterale.
      


Multilead electromyographic studies were made on 15 healthy young adult males to investigate the action of the postural muscles of the lower extremity,especially the gastro- cnemius.The results were as follows: 1.In standing position,either both legs or one leg supported the body weight,the gastrocnemius of the weight bearing leg or legs as well as hamstring muscles showed some potentials.When changing the body position from standing to squatting or the re- verse,the gastrocnemius showed similar activity.It...

Multilead electromyographic studies were made on 15 healthy young adult males to investigate the action of the postural muscles of the lower extremity,especially the gastro- cnemius.The results were as follows: 1.In standing position,either both legs or one leg supported the body weight,the gastrocnemius of the weight bearing leg or legs as well as hamstring muscles showed some potentials.When changing the body position from standing to squatting or the re- verse,the gastrocnemius showed similar activity.It indicates that the gastrocnemius acts together with the hamstring muscles to counteract the action of the quadriceps in main- taining the extended position of the knee joint. 2.When one leg stands on the ground and the other hangs freely,then flex and extend the free leg slowly,no activity was recorded in the gastrocnemius.Similarly no activity was recorded in the gastrocnemius when flexing the knee joint in sitting position. It is,therefore,assumed that the gastrocnemius is not necessarily a flexor of the knee joint as usually considered,but an important extensor under certain conditions. 3.When rotate the leg medially or laterally on siting position,the both heads of the gastrocnemius showed activities.The rotation of the leg towards either direction is not the action of a single head although the medial head is always more active than the lateral one. 4.The activities were also shown in the gastrocnemius when standing on the toes or stepping forward of the weight-bearing leg in walking.It confirms the common view that the gastrocnemius is a flexor of the ankle joint. The activities of the quadriceps,hamstring muscles and soleus were also recorded and discussed.

本文以Ediswan脑电墨水描记仪,肌内电极,观察了15例健康青年男子在不同姿势和运动时的下肢姿势肌——股四头肌、股二头肌、半腱肌、腓肠肌及比目鱼肌的电位活动。分析的初步结果是:一、腓肠肌对膝关节的作用1.在下肢支撑体重时:如立正站立时的电位表明腓肠肌拉大腿下端向后,协同股二头肌及半腱肌对抗股四头肌以强固膝关节。在下蹲时膝关节屈曲和起立时膝关节伸展的运动中,腓肠肌都出现了电位活动。在站立位身体前倾时,腓肠肌与比目鱼肌亦都出现了明显的电位活动。腓肠肌内侧头和外侧头在小腿内旋和外旋时皆有电位活动。2.在站立时一个下肢支撑体重:另一个下肢和地面垂直,慢屈及伸小腿时以及在坐位,大腿和地面平行慢伸和屈小腿时,腓肠肌都未出现电位活动。二、腓肠肌对踝关节的作用腓肠肌协同比目鱼肌蹠屈足,当走步支撑腿后蹬及站立位时它可提足跟向上。在直立姿势中,腓肠肌和比目鱼肌都参加强固踝关节,并调节小腿在足骨上的位置关系。三、我们对于股四头肌、股二头肌及半腱肌在膝关节所起的作用上亦做了电位观察。

In this report we have provided a preliminary assessment of the application of gastrocnemius in microsurgery after having observed the gastrocnemius and the blood vessels and nerves of 50 adult cadavers (100 cases of lower limbs).1. The gastrocnemius has relatively wide and thick belly both in the medial and in the lateral head , the strength of which is rather strong.Each head of the gastrocnemius has a single vessel and nerve.The outside diameter of the blood vessel is above 2 mm and the vessel pedicle 3-4...

In this report we have provided a preliminary assessment of the application of gastrocnemius in microsurgery after having observed the gastrocnemius and the blood vessels and nerves of 50 adult cadavers (100 cases of lower limbs).1. The gastrocnemius has relatively wide and thick belly both in the medial and in the lateral head , the strength of which is rather strong.Each head of the gastrocnemius has a single vessel and nerve.The outside diameter of the blood vessel is above 2 mm and the vessel pedicle 3-4 cm in length.The removal of either of the heads is of little effect on the functions of lower limbs.2. The medial head of the gastrocnemius has a wider and thicker belly, a bigger diameter and longer pedicle of the blood vessel than the lateral head.Theblood for the skin in the area of the medial head is mainly supplied by the musclocutaneous artery, while that in the area of lateral head by the direct cutaneous artery.

本文调查50具成人尸体(100例下肢〕的腓肠肌及其血管神经,对其在显微外科上的应用作了初步评价。 一、腓肠肌内、外侧头的肌腹较宽厚,肌力较强,各有单一的血管和神经;血管外直径在2mm以上,血管蒂长度为3~4cm;移去一头对下肢功能影响不大,可用于战伤修补大块组织缺损,或对某些动力肌的功能重建。 二、腓肠肌内侧头的肌腹宽厚度、血管外径以及血管蒂长度均大于腓肠肌外侧头,故选用供肌以内侧头为宜。内侧头区的皮肤血供以肌皮动脉为主,外侧头区以直接皮动脉为主,故前者可选用肌皮瓣,而后者可选用皮瓣或肌瓣。

Botulinum toxin(B.T.)type A was injected into the triceps surae group ofmuscles in the cat,causing chronic n-m block in these muscles.About three weeks-after the injection electrophysiological responses of the motoneurones of the medialgastrocnemius(m.g),lateral gastrocnemius(1.g.) and soleus(sol.)muscles,eitherto othodromic stimulation of the dorsal roots,or to antidromic stimulation of theirrespective muscle nerves,or to a constant current passing,through the soma mem-brane,were examined with the aid of intracellular...

Botulinum toxin(B.T.)type A was injected into the triceps surae group ofmuscles in the cat,causing chronic n-m block in these muscles.About three weeks-after the injection electrophysiological responses of the motoneurones of the medialgastrocnemius(m.g),lateral gastrocnemius(1.g.) and soleus(sol.)muscles,eitherto othodromic stimulation of the dorsal roots,or to antidromic stimulation of theirrespective muscle nerves,or to a constant current passing,through the soma mem-brane,were examined with the aid of intracellular microelectrodes.The main resultsobtained were:In comparison either with the typical responses in the the normalcat or with the responses of the contralateral unpoisoned side of the spinal cord ofthe same experimental animal,the responses of the motoneurones of the poisonedside showed in most cases a striking shortening of the after hyperpolarization(AHP),a decrease in the duration of the action potential and a decrease in the prominenceof the IS-SD spike inflection,and in general started to give repetitive dischargeswith the passage of weaker constant current.With two antidromic stimuli,thesecond SD response appeared at shorter stimulus intervals on the poisoned side.B.T.did not affect the conduction velocity of the motor axons and the resting po-tential of the motoneurone soma,and in general left the size of the action potentialovershoot unchanged.On all these three points the effect of B.T.forms a strikingcontrast to that of axotomy.In relation to AHP,B.T.distinguishes itself by ha-ving a shortening effect on the motoneurones of all the three muscles-m.g.,l.g.and sol.,while axotomy and TTX block of nerve conduction only affect the AHPof the sol.motoneurone.The various possible mechanisms underlying,the B.T.effect are discussed.

注射肉毒素(A 型)于成年猫一侧的内侧头腓肠肌、外侧头腓肠肌和比目鱼肮内,功能性地阻断这些肌肉与神经的联系。注射肉毒素约三星期后,用细胞内记录技术观察一侧被注射肉毒素肌肉(简称肉毒侧)的运动神经元电生理特性的变化,主要结果如下:(1)与正常动物的或一侧肌内注射肉毒素动物的对侧运动神经元比较,肉毒侧极大多数运动神经元的后超极化电位时程明显减短,动作电位上升相的弯折不明显,动作电位时程减短;并且这运动神经元在通较弱电流时就产生重复发放。(2)给二个逆向刺激时,肉毒侧的极大多数运动神经元在较短的刺激间隔时间就出现第二个 SD 峰电位。(3)肉毒侧运动神经元的静息电位、神经轴突传导速度及动作电位超射均无异常。第三项中的结果与切断轴突后的结果不同。肉毒侧内侧头腓肠肌、外侧头腓肠肌和比目鱼肌运动神经元的后超极化电位时程都减短的结果与切断轴突、横切脊髓或河豚毒阻断神经冲动使肌肉不活动后的结果也不同,后两者仅使比目鱼肌运动神经元的后超极化电位时程减短。最后讨论了产生这些结果的可能机制,它需要进一步进行研究。

 
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