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In this paper, the author proposes a simplified method for designing concrete mix. In this method cement paste is considered as one ingredient instead of two separate ingredients——cement and water. The function of cement paste in fresh concrete is that a large portion of the paste fills the void space in the mixed fine and coarse aggregates, and only a small portion coats the surface of the aggregate particles. Therefore the required amount of cement paste is predominantly determined by the void space of the...

In this paper, the author proposes a simplified method for designing concrete mix. In this method cement paste is considered as one ingredient instead of two separate ingredients——cement and water. The function of cement paste in fresh concrete is that a large portion of the paste fills the void space in the mixed fine and coarse aggregates, and only a small portion coats the surface of the aggregate particles. Therefore the required amount of cement paste is predominantly determined by the void space of the mixed aggregates. The important problem is how to determine the relative amounts of fine and coarse aggregates and cement paste per unit volume of concrete so as to achieve the required strength, durability, workability and economy.

設計混擬土配合比的方法很多,有繁有簡,繁的需要很多試驗与計算,簡的編成配合此表,祇需按表試配。新的方法还在不断創造,趨向于簡化試驗与計算手續,但又要能切合实际,容易得到符合要求的配合比。早在1948~1949年,作者根据混凝土組成原理,——絕大部分水泥漿是用來填充砂石间空隙,很小部分用來包裹砂石粒面及超潤滑作用——先求得最小砂石混合空隙率,加一常数,就可定出最經济水泥漿量,經过試配,確定最終配合比。1951~1952年,幾处工地試用,当時祇能做出水灰此为0.7坍落度3—7厘米的混凝土。1953~1954年,通过学習苏联混凝土技術,將本法發展到適用於各种要求的混凝土,即灰水比坍落度可任意改变,形成目前較完善的形式,合於工地及試驗室採用。本法在选定灰水比及坍落度後,祇需2—3步即可求出配合此,並算出材料用量;本法計算簡便,祇用兩个簡單的表(表1和表3);本法在進行中有自己校核的作用,計算秤量中如有錯誤容易查出。本法祇需極簡單的設备,易於学習,在大同及大伙房水庫工地祇經一小時的講解,試驗員即会应用。本法通过試配,应用的理論和數据都有正確根据,所以結果能切合实际。希望大家試用研究,提出改進意見,使本法日趨完善,並能逐...

設計混擬土配合比的方法很多,有繁有簡,繁的需要很多試驗与計算,簡的編成配合此表,祇需按表試配。新的方法还在不断創造,趨向于簡化試驗与計算手續,但又要能切合实际,容易得到符合要求的配合比。早在1948~1949年,作者根据混凝土組成原理,——絕大部分水泥漿是用來填充砂石间空隙,很小部分用來包裹砂石粒面及超潤滑作用——先求得最小砂石混合空隙率,加一常数,就可定出最經济水泥漿量,經过試配,確定最終配合比。1951~1952年,幾处工地試用,当時祇能做出水灰此为0.7坍落度3—7厘米的混凝土。1953~1954年,通过学習苏联混凝土技術,將本法發展到適用於各种要求的混凝土,即灰水比坍落度可任意改变,形成目前較完善的形式,合於工地及試驗室採用。本法在选定灰水比及坍落度後,祇需2—3步即可求出配合此,並算出材料用量;本法計算簡便,祇用兩个簡單的表(表1和表3);本法在進行中有自己校核的作用,計算秤量中如有錯誤容易查出。本法祇需極簡單的設备,易於学習,在大同及大伙房水庫工地祇經一小時的講解,試驗員即会应用。本法通过試配,应用的理論和數据都有正確根据,所以結果能切合实际。希望大家試用研究,提出改進意見,使本法日趨完善,並能逐漸推廣,在混凝土工程中發揮墳產節約与保證質量的作用。

In recent years, the geotectonic problem of China engages the attentionof many Chinese and Soviet geologists, but different opinions are confessed by different authors. After studying the structural characters of the fundamentalfloor and its later geological development, theauthor of this paper agrees withthe statement of the Soviet geologist, B. M. Синицын. In 1952 he pointed outthat the Chinese platform in eastern China, may bs divided into: (1) theSine-Korean platform; and (2) the Southern-Chinese platform,...

In recent years, the geotectonic problem of China engages the attentionof many Chinese and Soviet geologists, but different opinions are confessed by different authors. After studying the structural characters of the fundamentalfloor and its later geological development, theauthor of this paper agrees withthe statement of the Soviet geologist, B. M. Синицын. In 1952 he pointed outthat the Chinese platform in eastern China, may bs divided into: (1) theSine-Korean platform; and (2) the Southern-Chinese platform, consolidatedas a result of the Luliang movement. This Chinese platform especially in its southern part shows a very peculiarphenomenon as it is called "Activization" of the platform. During Sinian andPaleozoic, its sediments belonged to the pronounced epi-continental type, duringthe mesozoic the south-eastern part of the Southern-Chinese platform wasneither a stable shelf nor a geosyncline, but an intermediate type between them.Its characters were really not geosynclinal, but sometimes showed geosynclinalaffinities, as for instances, the immense granitic intrusions, the eruptions oflavas, and the rather strongly folded geosynclinal structures. These imply thelimited mobility or the incomplete consolidation of the underground. Accor-dingly, referred to the structural type of this region, P. Misch called it"Sinotype". Furthermore, in the Southern-Chinese platform, two strong "Activizingunits" are recognized as follows: 1) The Hunan-Kwangsi activizing andsubsiding region; 2) The Cathaysian activizing oldland. The "Activization"of these regions lasted for a long geological time. It began in Sinian, throughCaledonian, Variscian, Indo-Sinian, Yenshanian and even Himalayan. BeforeMesozoic, the Caledonian was the most intensive and widely distributed one.But as pointed out by A. H. Мазарович, the Caledonian of the Southern-Chineseplatform was merely a fold-belt within the platform. According to its geotectonic history, its character of sedimentation, itsregional metamorphism, its igneous activity and its geotectonic systems, suchas "Kwangsi ∈ system", "North-Kwangtung ∈ system", "Meso and Neo-Cathaysiansystem", and the "Nanling eastwest tectonic zone", it is the author's opinionthat the "Imtermediate type (Sinotype)" of the Southern-Chinese platform wasdeveloped gradually through a long "Activizing process". This "Sinotype" is anintermediate type between the stable shelf and the geosynclinal region.

作者同意B.M.西尼村的意见,认为中国地台是中国东部的一个大的构造单位,它是在吕梁运动后造成的。中国地台由两个主要部分构成,它的北部称中朝地台,南部称华南地台。中国地台有一很重要的特征,就是一个“活化”的地台。华南地台的东南部“活化”尤其强烈而显著,在中生代的太平洋运动时,差不多具有类似地槽的特征。但是它的“活化”是有悠久历史的,即开始於震旦纪,所以加里东运动给与很大的影响,但加里东运动只是地台内部的褶皱。地台“活化”直到中生代太平洋运动才得到高度发展,产生巨大的火成活动以及“中国式”的构造型式。新生代时地台还有中等强度的运动和火成活动。自第四纪冰期之后,地台仍在较弱的升降运动中。华南地台无论从沉积岩相、区域变质及火成活动,或从山字型、华夏式及南岭东西褶皱的构造体系等构造型式发育史的研究,都可以看到它的“活化”过程,在这过程里发育了“过渡类型”的构造形态,这都是不同放地槽或地台的构造形态的。本文是作为学习心得性质的初步尝试,文中不成熟和谬误之处尚多,希望得到大家的指正。如果能在集体的讨论和研究之下将我国大地构造研究清楚的话,这是作者所衷心期望的。

On Sakamoto looms, the warp tension during shedding and beating-up varies in accordance with the changes of positions and diameters of the lease rods, etc. For the purpose of promoting the functions of lease rods during weaving, it is necessary to give a thorough study to their foundamental influence on the warp tension. Some main factors influencing on warp tension are studied with the aid of mathematical analysis. Although the value of the warp tension obtained by this calculation does not coincide exactly...

On Sakamoto looms, the warp tension during shedding and beating-up varies in accordance with the changes of positions and diameters of the lease rods, etc. For the purpose of promoting the functions of lease rods during weaving, it is necessary to give a thorough study to their foundamental influence on the warp tension. Some main factors influencing on warp tension are studied with the aid of mathematical analysis. Although the value of the warp tension obtained by this calculation does not coincide exactly with the actual, measurement owing to the fact that only partial factors are included, the correct relationship between lease rods and warp tension is indicated.

阪本织机上经纱在开口和打緯时,经纱张力因受到絞杆位置的改变,絞杆直径的粗细等因素的影响,有着各种不同的张力。为了能准确地掌握绞杆与经纱张力的客观规律,更好地发挥绞杆在织造工程中的作用。故我们必须对它进行充份的研究。本文是择要的用数学分析法来研究绞杆与经纱张力间的相互关系。因为它不是把所有的因素都考虑进去,故计算所得的经纱张力的绝对值可能与实际略有出入,但指示出二者张力大小的相对关系是完全准确的、合于实际情况的。故本文可作为同学于学习机织学时的课外补充读物外,更可作为织布工场工作人员作更深一步研究时之参考资料。

 
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