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现代中国
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Through a long path of historical development the are of ancient chinese architecture has become an old, mature and unique style in the world. Within in the structural system, the artistic form and the decorative feature are harmoniously integrated. Ancient chinese buildiugs were chiefly constructed with wood. Thus the basic architectural characteristics resulted naturally from the requirement of the structural system itself. Chinese architecture is often composed of a group of separate buildings. Their arrangement...

Through a long path of historical development the are of ancient chinese architecture has become an old, mature and unique style in the world. Within in the structural system, the artistic form and the decorative feature are harmoniously integrated. Ancient chinese buildiugs were chiefly constructed with wood. Thus the basic architectural characteristics resulted naturally from the requirement of the structural system itself. Chinese architecture is often composed of a group of separate buildings. Their arrangement displays the sequence, order, and rhythm of the entire complex in space formation. In order to emphasize the artistic effect, the procedure is developed step by step through contrast between different elements. Symmetry is the general rule, but non-symmetrical layout also reveals the planner's rich experience. Ancient chineese builders showed great skill in arrangment of interior spaces. They allowed great flexibility through merging and inter penetration both in the vertical and horizontal divisions of areas and volumes. In decorating constructural elements, archi'tectural ornament may be of various materials—carved wood, stone or brick sculpture, metal works, gilded bronze, glazed tiles, textile, bomboo craft, inlaid works on furnishings with jade and ivory, etc. Colour effect accounts for another characteristic, like using pigment in fresco, paint on wooden members, gilt metals and glazed tiles. All these make the buildings vivid and brilliant. A wealth of skill and experience in chinese architectural heritage can serve as fountainhead today to develop modren chinese architeeural culture.

中国古代建筑艺术,是结构与造型及装饰工艺经长期发展而成的协调统一的艺术体系。它是世界上古老的、成熟的、风格独特的建筑体系之一。中国古代建筑以木结构为主体,它的基本造型特点来自结构的内在要求。中国古代建筑常由若干单体组合成群,形成有层次、有主从、有韵律的空间布局,用逐步展开和先后对比的手法增强艺术效果。常常形成对称布局,但在非对称布局方面也有丰富的经验。中国古代建筑有丰富的内部空间处理手法。空间的垂直分割和水平分割互相贯通穿插,极为灵活多变。中国古代建筑,除了对建筑构件进行艺术处理外,还采取多种材料用于装饰,发展成为多种专门工艺,重要的如木雕、石雕、砖雕、金属件、镏金、琉璃、镶嵌、织物、编竹等工艺,作为建筑和陈设的装饰手段。中国古代重视色彩效果,并且发展了壁画和木构上的彩绘,以及琉璃、金箔的色彩和光泽特性的运用,形成绚丽多彩的风貌。中国古建筑遗产中包含着极为丰富的经验,是发展现代中国建筑文化的源泉。

The apper is a drief account of the non-balance economic theory rising in 1980's as well as an effort, based on this theory, to set up the strategic policymaking theory and to put forward the strategy for developing China's coastal economy.It is the author's opinion that, at present, new concepts and new theories are in extraodinary demand to serve China's development of modern economy, so as to avoid fundamental strategic errors, Proceeding from the viewpoint of open and non-balance development and from the...

The apper is a drief account of the non-balance economic theory rising in 1980's as well as an effort, based on this theory, to set up the strategic policymaking theory and to put forward the strategy for developing China's coastal economy.It is the author's opinion that, at present, new concepts and new theories are in extraodinary demand to serve China's development of modern economy, so as to avoid fundamental strategic errors, Proceeding from the viewpoint of open and non-balance development and from the analysis over the non-balanc economic theory, the author reaches the conclusion that by the end of this century China's strategic focus of economic development will be laid on the east coastal region, and the strategic foci of the east coastal region are to be further located in two areas——Shenzhen and Ninpo.

本文概述了八十年代兴起的非平衡经济理论(又称开放经济理论),并试图以此为根据建立战略决策等理论,同时提出中国海岸经济的发展决策。作者认为,现代中国经济的发展,特别需要新的观念和理论指导,以避免重大决策失误。根据开放和非平衡的发展观点及非平衡经济理论的分析,作者认为,在本世纪末,中国经济发展的战略重点在东海岸地区,而东海岸地区的战略重点,则在深圳和宁波两地区。

Lu Xun and Hu Shi are two prominent figures in the modern cultural history of China. However, the past appraisement of them has been suffeting from being confined to their divergency in political standpoint. This essay is an effort to achieve an objective analysis and comparison of the two with respect to the cultural factors and academic concepts on the basis of the entire cultural environment. The author holds the view that Lu Xun and Hu Shi did not digress from the general orientation of science and democracy...

Lu Xun and Hu Shi are two prominent figures in the modern cultural history of China. However, the past appraisement of them has been suffeting from being confined to their divergency in political standpoint. This essay is an effort to achieve an objective analysis and comparison of the two with respect to the cultural factors and academic concepts on the basis of the entire cultural environment. The author holds the view that Lu Xun and Hu Shi did not digress from the general orientation of science and democracy in China inspire of their different ideological and political stands. Though they did not agree to each other in their under standing of patriotism and humanitarianism, the two represent a general red thread running through their ideological systems. Hu Shi's wrong po litical stand has cast a shadow on his ideological system. Nonetheless, taking everything into consideration and viewed in the whole context of the modern history of culture and ideology in China, we have to admit that his achievement still outweighs his errors.

鲁迅和胡适是中国现代文化史上的两位知名人物。过去对他们的评价较多地拘泥于其政治立场的差异。本文力图客观地以整体的文化环境为背景,从文化因素和学术思想方面分析比较鲁迅和胡适的思想。作者认为,鲁迅和胡适虽有不同的思想轨迹和政治立场,但都没有偏离现代中国的以科学和民主为旗帜的大方向;尽管他们对爱国主义和人道主义的理解不尽相同,但二者都是贯穿他们思想的红线;胡适错误的政治立场给他的学术思想蒙上阴影,但在中国现代文化思想史上,他仍然是功大于过的人物。

 
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