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着丝点融合
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     Medical image fusion
     医学图像融合
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     From Fission to Fusion
     从分裂到融合
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     CERTROMERES AND THEIR EVOLUTION
     着丝点及其进化
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  centric fusion
Chromosome 3N carried an asymmetric pericentric inversion, and the translocation line was a product of centric fusion between the long arms of chromosomes 3B and 3N.
      
The difference between sexes is probably due to the development of a multiple sex-chromosome system with a neo-Y, typical of males, which originated from a centric fusion of an autosome (now X2) with an undifferentiated Y.
      
Chromosomal exchanges included translocations (Robertsonian or centric fusion, reciprocal and incomplete types), and dicentrics.
      
Species of Chilocorus differ in chromosome number owing to centric fusion of metacentric chromosomes.
      
A single male had 14 chromosomes and was heterozygous for a translocation involving the centric fusion of two acrocentric autosomes.
      
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Misgurnus anguillicaudatus and Paramisgurnus dabryanus are two common species of mud loaches in Hubei Province. A comparative study of the karyotypes in these two species -was carried out with particular considerations on their taxonomy and evolution. The Chromosome preparations for this study were made with short-period PHA-cultured kidney cells in vitro by the air-drying method and Giemsa staining.

本文是泥鳅(Misgurnus anguillicaudatus)和大鳞付泥鳅(Paramisgurnusdabryanus)染色体组型的比较研究结果。泥鳅的二倍体染色体数为100,臂数(NF)128;大鳞付泥鳅的二倍体染色体数为48(49),臂数64(65)。因此,初步推断我们所研究的泥鳅是一种四倍体类型的鱼,它的核型曾有一个2n(50)→4n(100)的自然加倍演变;其较原始类型的核型可能是2n=50(NF=64)。大鳞付泥鳅与泥鳅属较原始类型鱼的进化分歧,在核型演化关系上可能主要表现为由两对端着丝点染色体发生着丝点融合(罗伯逊易位),成为一对具有明显双臂的染色体。我们还发现某些大鳞付泥鳅中可能存在B染色体。

Chromosome banding homologies were studied between the common moorhen, Gallinula chloropus (Gruiformes), and the domestic chicken, Gallus domesticus (Galliformes). The two species of birds displayed similar banding patterns which were found to be highly conserved. Common moorhen differed from chicken by two pericentric inversions, two paracentric inversions and a centric fusion. Sequential QM fluorescence and silver staining revealed the presence of a NOR on the W chromosome of common moorhen. We believe this...

Chromosome banding homologies were studied between the common moorhen, Gallinula chloropus (Gruiformes), and the domestic chicken, Gallus domesticus (Galliformes). The two species of birds displayed similar banding patterns which were found to be highly conserved. Common moorhen differed from chicken by two pericentric inversions, two paracentric inversions and a centric fusion. Sequential QM fluorescence and silver staining revealed the presence of a NOR on the W chromosome of common moorhen. We believe this is the first report of a NOR-bearing W chromosome in birds.

从二倍体细胞大染色体组(Macrochromosomes)的G带特征比较分析,鹤形目的黑水鸡与鸡形目的家鸡带型相似程度很大,标志着这两种鸟类的亲缘关系较近,同时也充分说明了不同目鸟类在进化上染色体变异的保守性。其带型差异仅在于两次臂间倒位、两次臂内倒位和一次着丝点融合。此外,我们采用QM荧光——银染的相继染色法发现黑水鸡的W染色体上有NOR存在,这种核仁组织者区域与性染色质发生连锁的现象在鸟类是首次发现。

The karyotypes of cultured Hapalogenys nitens from Xiamen stock were examined from the renal tissue.The number of chromosomes is 2n=46,which include two pair of mid-centromere chromosome,four pair of sub-mid dle-centromere chromosome,three pair of sub-top-centromere chromosome and twenty-eight top-centromere chromosome.It differs from the usual number of chromosomes of saltwater fish,which is 2n=48. The karyotypic formulae is:2n=46=4m+8sm+6st+28t,which was different from the result of Qingdao coastal water population:2n=48=2m+8sm+2st+36t.The...

The karyotypes of cultured Hapalogenys nitens from Xiamen stock were examined from the renal tissue.The number of chromosomes is 2n=46,which include two pair of mid-centromere chromosome,four pair of sub-mid dle-centromere chromosome,three pair of sub-top-centromere chromosome and twenty-eight top-centromere chromosome.It differs from the usual number of chromosomes of saltwater fish,which is 2n=48. The karyotypic formulae is:2n=46=4m+8sm+6st+28t,which was different from the result of Qingdao coastal water population:2n=48=2m+8sm+2st+36t.The number of diploid chromosomes of Xiamen stock cultured population was one pair less than Qingdao coastal water population,but the number of large mid-centromere chromosome of Xiamen population was one pair more than the other one.One of the reasons for this different might be the polymorphism.It might be that the centromeres of one couple of dis-homologous top-centromere chromosome of the Qingdao coastal water population amalgamated into one midcentromere chromosome,and the karyotypic formulae which is:2n=48=2m+8sm+2st+36t turned into 2n=46=4m+8sm+6st+28t,and polymorphism came into being between the two different groups of Hapalogenys nitens.The number of sub-top-centromere chromosomes and top-centromere chromosomes was more than that of the sub-middle-centromere chromosomes and mid-centromere chromosomes,indicating that Hapalogenys nitens was more advanced than most another populations in Perciformes.

采用尾静脉抽血法对斜带髭鲷厦门网箱养殖群体的染色体核型进行了研究,结果显示其核型公式为2n=46=4m+8sm+6st+28t,染色体总臂数NF=58,与喻子牛等对青岛近海斜带髭鲷的研究结果存在差异.通过对比发现厦门斜带髭鲷染色体2倍体数2n=46比青岛的少1对,但大型中部着丝点染色体数目又比青岛海域群体多出一对.从而推断斜带髭鲷厦门网箱养殖群体的染色体核型2n=46=4m+8sm+6st+28t可能是从核型2n=48=2m+8sm+2st+36t通过一对非同源的端部着丝点染色体经罗伯逊易位,着丝点融合形成了一中部着丝点染色体而形成的,进而造成斜带髭鲷不同地理种群间染色体的多态现象.

 
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