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     RESEARCH INTO SOIL FORMATION FROM PURPLE ROCK WEATHERING IN SICHUAN BASIN
     四川盆地紫色岩风化成土的研究
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     Metasomatic Mechanism of Weathering-Pedogenesis of Carbonate Rocks:Ⅰ.Mineralogical and Microtextural Evidence
     碳酸盐岩风化成土的交代作用机理:Ⅰ.矿物与微结构证据
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     3. The formations of three iron-manganese cutans were different because the difference of their material compositions, soil-forming climate and environment.
     3.成土的气候环境和物质组成的差异,使三类土壤铁锰胶膜的形成各有特点。 黄褐土的成土作用相对较弱,在胶膜的物质迁移过程中,MnO_2对Co、Pb、Cu、Cd、Ni等大部分重金属离子的富集起主导作用;
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     2、Using the system, the reflective spectrum of 8 soil samples in the range of the wavelength of 400nm to 1100nm are measured, which is collected from different sites, and their reflective curves are gained. The correlative analysis between the organic matter content and reflective spectrum of these soil indicates that soil organic content has strong correlation with soil reflective spectrum at the wavelength of 560nm to 690nm, especially at 664nm, these results are agree with formers’conclusion.
     ⑵利用测试系统对8个来自不同环境条件下成土的土壤样本在400~1100nm 范围内进行光谱测量,得到各个土样的反射率曲线,通过对土壤的有机质含量与土壤反射光谱间的相关分析,研究表明二者在560~690nm 波段内的相关性较高,这也取得与前人较一致的结果。
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     This paper also has expounded systematically for the first time the mechanism of metasomatism involved in the process of weathering pedogenesis of carbonate rocks and proposed the sequence of mineral metasomatic evolution in the process of weathering pedogenesis of carbonate rocks.
     首次较为系统讨论了碳酸盐岩风化成土的交代作用机理 ,提出了碳酸盐岩风化成土过程中的矿物交代演化序列
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  相似匹配句对
     RESEARCH INTO SOIL FORMATION FROM PURPLE ROCK WEATHERING IN SICHUAN BASIN
     四川盆地紫色岩风化土的研究
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     The Forming Characteristics and Property of Purple Soil in Zhejiang Province
     浙江省紫色土的土特征与性状
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     (4) Contextual instruction and achievement motivation have no direct effect on interest and academic performance, achievement goal is mediate variable.
     (4)
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     Petroleum System
     油体系
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     On Visual Inspection for the Identification of Soils
     关于土的目力鉴别
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  pedogenic
The cartographic analysis of the resulting map shows the specificity of the pedogenic differentiation of the soil pore space in the loamy soils.
      
It is argued that diagnostic soil horizons should clearly reflect in their properties the character of pedogenic processes and, thus, be the basis for classification of alluvial soils.
      
It is shown that the history of sedimentation and development of soil-forming materials exerts a great effect on the modern pedogenic processes.
      
The pedogenic new formations are represented by fine magnetic ferric oxides of specific shape.
      
Pedogenic carbonate isotope record of vegetational evolution since late Miocene in Loess Plateau
      
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After soil survey of the whole region,it is found that the soils of the North China Great Plain consist of four great soil groups including drab soil,light meadow soil,glei swamp soil and saline soil.The term“calcareous alluvial soils” formerly used hardly interprets any mean of soil formation and productive cha- racteristics. The drab soils formerly named as“Shangtung brown soils”are generally located on the alluvial fan and the foot of mountains.Owing to the higher relief,excess drainage and deeper ground...

After soil survey of the whole region,it is found that the soils of the North China Great Plain consist of four great soil groups including drab soil,light meadow soil,glei swamp soil and saline soil.The term“calcareous alluvial soils” formerly used hardly interprets any mean of soil formation and productive cha- racteristics. The drab soils formerly named as“Shangtung brown soils”are generally located on the alluvial fan and the foot of mountains.Owing to the higher relief,excess drainage and deeper ground water(below 4—6 meters),saliniza- tion is not found.The drab soil is neutral to slightly alkaline in reaction. The chemical data show no evidence of chemical decomposition of clay,but the disintegration of soil particles-clay formation is quite obvious.Along the foot of Taihang range,the drab soils are covered with new calcareous material and bring out the process of recalcification shown by the presence of pseudo- mycelins in the Soil profiles. Light meadow soils are generally distributed in the alluvial plain with higher ground water table laying at 2—3 meters.Owing to the frequency of the fluc- tuation of the ground water in the soil profile,oxidation and reduction are alternately carried out and lots of rusts and mottlings are found in the soil profile of these soils.Under intensive cultivation,the surface soil of light meadow soil is usually loose and mellow and contains lower content of organic matter. The glei swamp soils are formed by the lakeside and in the depressed lowlands where ground water table is quite shallow and sometimes close up to the sur- face.In the depressed lands contacted with mountain foot,longer duration of water-lodging produces strongly gleyed swamp soil with higher content of humus. In the depressed portion of alluvial plain,the temporary water-lodging gives weakly gleyed swamp soil with low content of humus,whilst the strongly gleyed soils are found in the depressed land along seacoast. Salinization of soils is influenced by the ground water and relief.Saline soils are usually distributed in the lowland with higher ground water table and higher mineral content of the water.Irrigation without drainage system will rise ground water table and causes the process of secondary salinization. Saline soils of North China plain may be divided into two subtypes:(1) Saline soil of alluvial plain and(2)Saline soils along the seacoast.The former belongs to the chloride-sulfate saline soils in which the ground water table is about 1.5—2.0 meters and the mineral content of the ground water is about 1—3 grams/liter.In the coastal region,the chloride saline soils are usually found with high ground water table at 1.0—1.5 meter and also high mineral content more than 10 grams/liter.The transitional belt between these two soils above-mentioned is sulfate-chloride saline soils where the ground water table is around 1.5 meter and the mineral content of ground water is 5—10 grams/liter. These four genetic soil types are closely related each other and also alternate between themselves.It is very interesting to study the transitional types among these four soil groups. Between drab soils and light meadow soils,the transitional soil types as meadow drab soils and drab meadow soils are formed under different transitional circumstances.The meadow drab soil is distributed at the bottom of alluvial fan with higher ground water table(1.5—3 meters),while the drab meadow soil is formed on the old riverbed in the alluvial plain with comparatively uplifting relief where the ground water table becomes deeper(3—3.5 meters). Many transitional soil types are also developed between the light meadow soils and glei swamp soils.The worse water lodging condition enforces the meadow soil transfering to glei swamp soil,whilst promotion of water condi- tion by diking drainage cannel or local silting up of lowlands causes the trans- formation of glei swamp soil in to light meadow soil or even to the drab soil. Salinization of soil is always accompanied with the formation of light meadow soil.Rising the ground water table and increasing the mineral content of ground water will induce or enforce the process of sainization of soils.On the other side,desalinization of soils can be carried out when the ground water table becomes lower.When the seatide is shut by dikes and the drainage condition is improved,the saline soil in the coastal region will be transfered to the light meadow soils.

经过一年多的大规模调查,证实了华北平原的土壤都具有不同的类型和不等程度的发育,其中包括很多土类、亚类和变种,过去简称华北平原土壤为“石灰性冲积土”,是很难反映情况和说明问题的。华北平原的主要成土过程有褐土过程、浅色草甸土过程、沼泽过程和盐土过程。褐土多发育于山麓及冲积扇形地上,地势较高,排水良好,地下水埋藏较深,约在4—6米以下。在降水淋洗之下,可溶盐类皆被淋失,不发生盐演化现象,土壤只及于粘化作用,pH 值多属中性至微碱性。太行山麓的褐土因受石灰性沉积物的覆盖,发生次生碳酸盐化作用,土壤剖面中有假菌丝体存在。浅色草甸土多分布于冲积平原,其形成过程受地下水的影响极显著。地下水埋藏深度约2—3米,也可达4—5米。由于地下水升降频繁,氧化还原作用交替进行,土壤中呈现显明的锈纹斑,但无假菌丝体。土壤疏松多孔而有结构性,因土壤中有机质较少、土色浅淡而多受人为耕作的影响,故称耕种浅色草甸土。洼地及湖淀附近,地下水埋藏较浅或地表积水,土壤发生沼泽化过程。山麓交接洼地,积水时期长久,潜育作用及腐殖质积累均较显著。平原中洼地比较平坦,积水时间亦较短,腐殖质积累和潜育作用都较轻微。海滨洼地中,潜育作用较为剧烈,但有机质的积累则...

经过一年多的大规模调查,证实了华北平原的土壤都具有不同的类型和不等程度的发育,其中包括很多土类、亚类和变种,过去简称华北平原土壤为“石灰性冲积土”,是很难反映情况和说明问题的。华北平原的主要成土过程有褐土过程、浅色草甸土过程、沼泽过程和盐土过程。褐土多发育于山麓及冲积扇形地上,地势较高,排水良好,地下水埋藏较深,约在4—6米以下。在降水淋洗之下,可溶盐类皆被淋失,不发生盐演化现象,土壤只及于粘化作用,pH 值多属中性至微碱性。太行山麓的褐土因受石灰性沉积物的覆盖,发生次生碳酸盐化作用,土壤剖面中有假菌丝体存在。浅色草甸土多分布于冲积平原,其形成过程受地下水的影响极显著。地下水埋藏深度约2—3米,也可达4—5米。由于地下水升降频繁,氧化还原作用交替进行,土壤中呈现显明的锈纹斑,但无假菌丝体。土壤疏松多孔而有结构性,因土壤中有机质较少、土色浅淡而多受人为耕作的影响,故称耕种浅色草甸土。洼地及湖淀附近,地下水埋藏较浅或地表积水,土壤发生沼泽化过程。山麓交接洼地,积水时期长久,潜育作用及腐殖质积累均较显著。平原中洼地比较平坦,积水时间亦较短,腐殖质积累和潜育作用都较轻微。海滨洼地中,潜育作用较为剧烈,但有机质的积累则不一致,水浅处的有机质积累较多。因地形及地下水的情况不同,土壤盐渍程度各地不一。盐渍土多发生于山前交接洼地、碟形洼地边缘,以及槽状洼地和地上河流的两侧。有些灌区由于缺乏合理的灌排系统和灌溉制度,土壤发生了次生盐演化现象。华北平原盐渍土可分为内陆及海滨两种:内陆盐渍土多属氯化物硫酸盐土,地下水埋藏深度约1.5—2.0米,地下水矿化度约1—3克/升;海滨盐土区多属氧化物盐土,地下水埋藏深度约1.0—1.5米,地下水矿化度大于10克/升;过渡地带(即海滨盐土与内陆盐土的过渡地带)的盐渍土多属硫酸盐氯化物盐土,地下水埋藏深度约1.5米左右,地下水矿化度5—10克/升。华北平原中的四个主要成土过程是互相联系,而且有过渡阶段的。褐土和浅色草甸土的形成条件,主要在于排水情况和地下水位的不同。所以这两种土壤分布毗鄰而有互相过渡的发展情况。扇形地中下部,地面排水尚好而地下水埋藏较浅(1.5—3米),褐土区中可发育浅色草甸褐土。在泛盐平原中地势相对高起的黄河故道或靠近冲积扇地区,地下水埋藏较深(3.5—5米),可发育褐土化浅色草甸土。泛溘平原中的洼地积水愈久,沼浑化过程愈强,可由沼泽化浅色草甸土过渡至浅色草甸沼泽土或沼泽土。但经人工挖沟排水或洼地淤平以后,土壤可由沼泽土转向浅色草甸过程或褐土过程发展。浅色草甸土中如地下水埋藏浅而矿化度高,则土壤可向盐土方向发展。海滨盐土如不再受海潮影响和改善排水情况,则土壤也可由盐土向浅色草甸土发展。

Field observations and laboratory studies revealed that the “white soil” in Tai Lakeregin was formed as a result of surface water-logging.The iron content of the wholesoil and the clay fraction in the “white horizon” at a depth of from about 25 cm to 40cm was rather low,and as a consequence the alumina/iron oxide ratio of the “WhiteHorizon” was high as compared with other horizons.The soil differed from the “de-graded paddy soil” of Japan in that it was not a result of present-time formation.The infertility...

Field observations and laboratory studies revealed that the “white soil” in Tai Lakeregin was formed as a result of surface water-logging.The iron content of the wholesoil and the clay fraction in the “white horizon” at a depth of from about 25 cm to 40cm was rather low,and as a consequence the alumina/iron oxide ratio of the “WhiteHorizon” was high as compared with other horizons.The soil differed from the “de-graded paddy soil” of Japan in that it was not a result of present-time formation.The infertility of the soil was found to be due chiefly to the lack of available nitro-gen and phosphorus,especially in the “white horizon”.Field experiment revealed thatthe application of large amount of manures and fertilizers could increase the yield of riceby about three times as compared with the control treatment.

根据研究结果,认为太湖地区的低产白土,曾经遭受过一定程度的表面潜育过程。但是白土层的出现,并不是现代水稻土成土过程的产物,而且这种白土的特性,又与太湖地区的一般脱沼泽土不同。这种白土的低产原因,是由于施肥过少,因而有效养分,特别是氮和磷比较缺乏所致。物理性质不良也可起有一定影响。由于有机质含量和胶体含量都较少,所以保蓄养分的能力也较差。通过田间试验证明,深耕结合施用大量有机肥料,可以变低产为高产,在一次改良措施后,水稻即可增产一倍以上。

The mineral composition of clay fraction (<2μ) of about sixty representative paddy soils was studied by X-ray diffraction,differential thermal analysis and chemical methods. It was found that in most paddy soils,the mineral composition resembled to the parent soils on which they had developed.For example,both the red soils derived from quarter- nary red clay and the corresponding rice paddy soils in the subtropic zone of central China possess kaolinite and illite as the predominant clay minerals with comparatively...

The mineral composition of clay fraction (<2μ) of about sixty representative paddy soils was studied by X-ray diffraction,differential thermal analysis and chemical methods. It was found that in most paddy soils,the mineral composition resembled to the parent soils on which they had developed.For example,both the red soils derived from quarter- nary red clay and the corresponding rice paddy soils in the subtropic zone of central China possess kaolinite and illite as the predominant clay minerals with comparatively smaller quantities of quartz and montimorillonite.“De-potassication”and “De-silication”are the manifest change of clay minerals during the development of paddy soil,where the illite-type clays axe partially transformed into montimorillonite and further into kaolinite especially in soils rich in potassium-bearing minerals. On the other hand,however,“re-alkalization”and“re-silication”also take place which may be induced through intensively cultivation and fertilization of rice plantation.For example,during the development of paddy soils from highly weathered laterite,there are evidences of the decrease of gibbsite and kaolinite with the appearence of montimorillonite, and meantime the cation exchange capacity is increased in paddy soils. Gleization in paddy soils was essentially the processes of reduction and leaching of iron and manganese oxides,while the major constituents of clay mineral remains unchanged. According to the composition of clay minerals,the paddy soils investigated are tenta- tively grouped into four geographical regions.

应用 X 射线衍射法、差热分析法和化学分析法,鉴定了中国主要水稻土区的近六十个土壤标本。粘粒系小于2微米的部分。水稻土的粘土矿物组成与其母质有密切关系,在一般情况下,它继承了母质的矿物组成。不同母质发育的水稻土的主要粘土矿物组成可见表17。水稻土形成过程中粘土矿物组成的变化可分为三种不同的情况:富有含钾矿物的母质发育成水稻土时脱钾作用明显,粘土矿物有较大的变化。中量含钾矿物的母质发育成水稻土后,粘土矿物组成的变化很小。没有含钾矿物的砖红壤发育的水稻土,在成土过程中有明显的复硅和复盐基作用,在老水稻土中,三水铝石减少,同时出现了濛脱类矿物。水稻土表层与心土层的粘土矿物组成,只有少数土壤有明显差别,大多数看不出差别来。水稻土的潜育层与其上部土层比较起来,除氧化铁含量有显著减少以外,粘土矿物组成基本上是相同的。因此潜育作用的实质主要是部分游离氧化铁的还原,淋失,而粘土矿物并未遭受特别强烈的破坏。根据粘土矿物的异同,暂时将中国水稻土分为四个地理区:以高岭类(三水铝石)为主的华南水稻土区,也就是热带和南亚热带双季稻地区,以高岭类(云泰、濛脱类)为主的华中水稻土区,也就是中亚热带双季稻地区,以濛脱类和云泰(高岭类)为主的...

应用 X 射线衍射法、差热分析法和化学分析法,鉴定了中国主要水稻土区的近六十个土壤标本。粘粒系小于2微米的部分。水稻土的粘土矿物组成与其母质有密切关系,在一般情况下,它继承了母质的矿物组成。不同母质发育的水稻土的主要粘土矿物组成可见表17。水稻土形成过程中粘土矿物组成的变化可分为三种不同的情况:富有含钾矿物的母质发育成水稻土时脱钾作用明显,粘土矿物有较大的变化。中量含钾矿物的母质发育成水稻土后,粘土矿物组成的变化很小。没有含钾矿物的砖红壤发育的水稻土,在成土过程中有明显的复硅和复盐基作用,在老水稻土中,三水铝石减少,同时出现了濛脱类矿物。水稻土表层与心土层的粘土矿物组成,只有少数土壤有明显差别,大多数看不出差别来。水稻土的潜育层与其上部土层比较起来,除氧化铁含量有显著减少以外,粘土矿物组成基本上是相同的。因此潜育作用的实质主要是部分游离氧化铁的还原,淋失,而粘土矿物并未遭受特别强烈的破坏。根据粘土矿物的异同,暂时将中国水稻土分为四个地理区:以高岭类(三水铝石)为主的华南水稻土区,也就是热带和南亚热带双季稻地区,以高岭类(云泰、濛脱类)为主的华中水稻土区,也就是中亚热带双季稻地区,以濛脱类和云泰(高岭类)为主的长江中、下游水稻土区,也就是北亚热带稻麦两熟地区,以云泰(濛脱类)为主的华北水稻土区。由于水稻土的粘土矿物组成仍受其前身——地带性土壤的影响,因此上述各区的粘土矿物组成,也反映出地带性的特征。

 
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