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柑橘粉
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In order to control Dialeurodes citri in Xinning County effectively,through the on-the-spot investigation,the main cause of outbreak of D.citri was found out.The results show 48% Lorsban EC,10% Imidacloprid WP and 25% Actare are the effective pesticides to control D.citri.The three pesticides cannt kill eggs directly.48% Lorsban EC can kill all nymphs and the effective period is short.10% Imidacloprid and 25% Actare only kill the first instar nymph effectively and the corresponding period is long.The effective...

In order to control Dialeurodes citri in Xinning County effectively,through the on-the-spot investigation,the main cause of outbreak of D.citri was found out.The results show 48% Lorsban EC,10% Imidacloprid WP and 25% Actare are the effective pesticides to control D.citri.The three pesticides cannt kill eggs directly.48% Lorsban EC can kill all nymphs and the effective period is short.10% Imidacloprid and 25% Actare only kill the first instar nymph effectively and the corresponding period is long.The effective period of the three pesticides is Actare> Imidacloprid> Lorsban.As for Actare,the period can reach 20 days.Mixed spraying of Lorsban and Actare(or Imidacloprid)was the best was to control D.citri for better effectiveness and longer effective period.

为有效防治新宁县的柑橘粉虱,通过实地考察,查明新宁县柑橘粉虱的暴发主要是由于当地长期滥用农药,杀伤天敌,削弱了天敌对柑橘粉虱的控制作用,柑橘粉虱有很好的饲料条件,再加上防治方法不当等造成的.田间试验结果表明,48%乐斯本乳油、10%吡虫啉可湿性粉剂和25%阿克泰水分散粒剂都是防治柑橘粉虱的有效药剂.这3种药剂都不能直接杀卵.48%乐斯本乳油能杀死各龄期若虫,但持效期短;10%吡虫啉可湿性粉剂和25%阿克泰水分散粒剂仅对1龄若虫高效,但持效期长.阿克泰持效期最长,乐斯本持效期最短.阿克泰的持效期可达20 d以上.最佳施药方法是在卵孵化盛期用48%乐斯本1 000倍液和10%吡虫啉2 000倍液(或25%阿克泰3 000倍液)混用喷雾,既能有较好的防效,又能保持较长的持效期.

The spatial distribution pattern of Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead) in grapefruit garden generally shows a negative binomial distribution of aggregation, which is characterized with individual repulsion and predominant individual group as core distribution pattern in the crown of a tree or in the grapefruit garden. Through detection of λ value, the reason of aggregate is the species properties and the environmental difference , and λ value increases linearly with the increase of population density. The type of parallel...

The spatial distribution pattern of Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead) in grapefruit garden generally shows a negative binomial distribution of aggregation, which is characterized with individual repulsion and predominant individual group as core distribution pattern in the crown of a tree or in the grapefruit garden. Through detection of λ value, the reason of aggregate is the species properties and the environmental difference , and λ value increases linearly with the increase of population density. The type of parallel and random sampling is easy and precise for investigating pest among the eastern, southern, western, northern and middle shoots or any shoot of a tree and among low-, mid- and top-leaves of a shoot. There are two equations to judge the occurrence degree of the Dialeurodes citri. The pest's occurrence degree can be judged by investigating 16 or 21 trees at most.

经测定,柑橘粉虱在柚园的空间分布基本为负二项分布的聚集分布型,其中柚园内分布以个体间相互排斥为特征,新梢或基地内分布的主要成分是个体群即核心分布型。经种群聚集均数(λ)测定,其聚集原因是由种群自身特性与环境的异质性共同作用引起的,且λ随叶平均虫量的增加而呈直线增加。以每梢取基叶、中部叶、顶叶三叶,每株取东、南、西、北、中五个方位梢或任一梢,采用平行跳跃法或随机取样法调查虫情简易而准确。判断该虫发生程度的界限方程有2组,最多调查16或21株即能判断该虫的发生情况。

Orange peels were studied in terms of their abilities to support microbe growth and extracellular enzyme production of different strains. Of all the fungi tested, Aspergillus usaanii proved to be the most potent strain and produced highly active multienzyme system in solid-state fermentation. To improve the productivity of Aspergillus usaanii ,60Co γ radiation was used in the work and a mutant Aspergillus usaanii -C33 was obtained. Acid protease, CMCase and xylanase of the mutant were improved by 28%, 26% and...

Orange peels were studied in terms of their abilities to support microbe growth and extracellular enzyme production of different strains. Of all the fungi tested, Aspergillus usaanii proved to be the most potent strain and produced highly active multienzyme system in solid-state fermentation. To improve the productivity of Aspergillus usaanii ,60Co γ radiation was used in the work and a mutant Aspergillus usaanii -C33 was obtained. Acid protease, CMCase and xylanase of the mutant were improved by 28%, 26% and 24.5% respectively. Soymeal and urea were found to have significant effects on the multienzyme production. The optimizing content of soymeal and urea were 15.5% and 3% of orange peels powders respectively. Under initial moisture content of 60% and after culturing 60h under 28℃, yields as high as 20.8U/g, 7.25U/g, 74.7U/g, 7248.4U/ g and 3222.6 U/g of dry weight of CMCase, FPA, β -glucosidase, acid protease and xylanase , respectively ,were obtained by orthogonal test.

本试验对14个菌株以柑橘皮为主要原料固体发酵生产复合酶的生产性能进行了比较, 发现宇佐美曲霉Aspergillus usaanii具有较好的复合酶产率,为进一步提高该菌株的产酶能力, 我们利用γ-射线辐射对其进行了诱变育种,选育得到一株纤维素酶活提高26%、酸性蛋白酶提高28%、木聚糖酶提高24.5%的突变菌株AU—C33。采用正交试验方法对该菌株的基础培养基进行了优化,结果表明豆粕和尿素含量对各酶活具有极显著影响。以柑橘粉计,当添加23% 豆粕、8%麸皮、3%尿素,水分含量在60%,28℃培养60h后,CMCase、FPA、β-葡萄糖苷酶、酸性蛋白酶和木聚糖酶分别达到了20.8U/g、7.25U/g、74.7U/g、7248.4U/g和3222.6U/g。

 
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