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    The paper makes a research in generation and development of logistics and supply chain management ,reveals the promoting relationship between continuous deepened logistics function and essential competition power of an enterprise and puts forward the method of developing chinese logistics industry.
    从经济学分工理论和交易效率、交易费用理论的角度研究物流管理和供应链管理的产生和发展,揭示了物流功能的不断深化和企业的核心竞争力的提升互相促进的过程,从本质上认识物流管理和供应链管理与分工专业化的发展、经济发展的正反馈性,然后结合中国物流业发展现状和管理现状,分析促进中国物流业发展的途径。
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    The innate character of circulation economy is a kind of ecology economy.
    循环经济本质上是一种生态经济,走循环经济发展道路有利于城市的生态化建设;
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    Recycling economy is characterized by utilization of circulative resources and efficient recycling of the discarded.
    循环经济以资源循环利用和废物高效回收为特征,本质上是一种生态经济。
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    As a kind of ecological economy and revolution of traditional linear economy,recurrent economy is the more advanced and sophisticated application of comprehensive resource and the final goal of clean production.
    循环经济本质上是一种生态经济,是对传统线性经济的革命,是更高、更深层次的资源综合利用,是清洁生产的最终发展目标。
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    The shortage of raw materials is result with consumer construction change.
    比较突出的是钢材、水泥、电力等部分原材料供应出现紧张,这种状况的发生本质上就是消费结构变化带来的结果。
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A political sytsem is,according to the co-authors of the present article,essentially a systemof social administration,and its reform inevitably involves such questions as who are to exerci-se administration,who are to be subjected to it and how to exercise it.Political administrationoperates on people,consequently its reform necessarily involves that of personnel management.Basing on such understandings,the co-authors note that the research on the reform of politicalsystem inevitably involves such highly sensitive...

A political sytsem is,according to the co-authors of the present article,essentially a systemof social administration,and its reform inevitably involves such questions as who are to exerci-se administration,who are to be subjected to it and how to exercise it.Political administrationoperates on people,consequently its reform necessarily involves that of personnel management.Basing on such understandings,the co-authors note that the research on the reform of politicalsystem inevitably involves such highly sensitive questions as whether or not the masses of thepeople are really wielding their power as masters of the state and whether or not the Party or-ganizations and government institutions are really in the service of the people.Moreover,thestudy of the reform of political system must necessarily be associated with the reform in econo-mic system,because the reform in one field will automatically promote and complement that inthe other.Also,such study inevitably involves the review on the functioning mechanism of Chi-na's social sytems,inasmuch as the former reform is being effeeted at a time of the replace- ment of the old systems by the new.As a systmatic study on these aspects,the article is,to acertain extent,informative on the problem of the reform of political system.

政治制度本质上是一种社会管理制度。政治体制的改革,必然涉及到谁来管、管什么、怎么管的问题;政治管理,也是人对人的管理,政治体制的改革,必然涉及到人事管理问题。因而研究政治体制的改革,不能不触及刭人民群众是否真正当家作主、党政部门是否真正为人民服务这类十分敏感的问题,又因为政治体制改革与经济体制改革是互相促进、相辅相成的,因而研究政治体制的改革,不能不联系到经济体制的改革;又因为这次政治体制改革是在新旧体制转换时期进行的,因而研究政治体制改革,不能不联系到对我国社会发展的运行机制的探讨。本文对上述几个方面进行了深入探讨,对政治体制改革的理论研究有一定参考价值。

Government control over oligopoly market is a strategy problem concerning optimization under the competitive environment of market economy This paper analyzes the objectives and means of government's macroeconomic policy, establishes a game model with mechanism of control, and finally discusses the optimization problem of market structure

政府对寡头垄断市场的调控问题, 本质上是一个在市场经济竞争环境下各行为主体利益的协调优化的对策问题。本文详细分析了政府宏观调控的目标、方式, 建立了具有调控机制的博弈论模型, 给出了调控效果的分析, 最后讨论了市场结构的优化问题

Management is a valuable action which can be measured.Payment for managers is intrinsically decided by their magnitude of value indirectly formed by managerial action.This magnitude should be estimated from both budgetary and real value.The budgetary value calculated by magnitude of job responsibility decides probable standard of payment.The real payment of managers must be adjusted according to their action value.Therefore,an appropriate system of restraint and measurement of value is indispensable.

管理活动是可度量的价值行为。管理者的收入本质上应取决于管理行为所间接形成的价值量大小———即取决于管理行为的价值表现。对管理行为值的估算应从预算值和实际值两方面入手 ,依岗位责任值等计算出的预算值决定可能的收入标准 ,管理者的实际收入还必须依据行为价值在预算值上下调整。相应需要建立适当的价值衡量、约束机制

 
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