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本质上
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    Chapter two the Analysis of Interrelated Theories This chapter analyzes the attribute of the accounting information from the economy side.
    第二章 相关理论分析 本章从经济学的角度分析了会计信息的属性,得出会计信息本质上是一种商品,现阶段又兼有公共产品的特性。
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    So the establishment of a modern enterprise and implementing the strategical management for an enterprise is a plenty condition for an enterprise to make some benefit at some extent.
    因此,在建立现代企业制度的同时充分有效地实施企业战略管理,一定程度上可以说是实现企业效益的充分条件。 而现代企业制度的建立与实现,本质上也是具有相应的战略含义的。
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    The knowledge economy is the knowledge intensive economy based on modern new and high technology economy.
    知识经济是一种不同于传统经济的新经济形态,从本质上讲,它是以现代高新技术经济为基础的知识密集型经济。
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    Secondly, internal control systems are basic framework of internal control.
    第二,内部控制是一系列的管理行为过程,内部控制制度是内部控制的基础框架,本质上它是一类契约,是内部控制的行为规则;
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    Being a main means of cooperation, strategic alliance is a special organizational governance structure between market and organization.
    从本质上讲,战略联盟是一种介于市场与企业之间的特殊组织治理结构,根据联盟成员之间参与程度与结合紧密程度的不同可划分为股权式战略联盟和契约式战略联盟。
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The author argues that,firms' redundant personnel is an ordinary social phenomenon. It has become a social problem and not an enterprise's one. Solving the problem of tirms'surplus personnel exists three kinds of difficulties.The first difficulty is that,there cxist too many workers arranged in firms by the State in the past several decades. The second diffculty is that,we have to pay a price for the old workers mentioned above.And finally,the difficulty is the weak ability the staff can bear unemployment and...

The author argues that,firms' redundant personnel is an ordinary social phenomenon. It has become a social problem and not an enterprise's one. Solving the problem of tirms'surplus personnel exists three kinds of difficulties.The first difficulty is that,there cxist too many workers arranged in firms by the State in the past several decades. The second diffculty is that,we have to pay a price for the old workers mentioned above.And finally,the difficulty is the weak ability the staff can bear unemployment and the governments' fiscal capacity can endure the staff's unemployment relief fund.The author further puts forward the measures for resolving the problem of firms'surplus personnel.They include the following contents: The first,establish the mechanism for enterprises'workers entering and leaving. The second,set up the mechanism for labourers to make jobs themselves. The third,build up the corresponding social security mechanism. The fourth,our country must establish the mechanism for encouraging enterprises to absorb labourers. Besides the above reform of system,we cardinally solve the problem of firms' surplus personnel must rely on developing product to tap new product sources,spread product fields,enlarge product scale,and probe into new ways to fractionalize firms' redundant personnel.

本文认为,企业冗员在中国的今天是一个普遍的社会现象,它已经不是企业的问题,而是一个社会问题。本质上是一种由于人口过多,生产力不发达,就业需求与生产需求之间不相适应的宏观社会矛盾。企业冗员过多,给企业造成了沉重的包袱,不仅影响了企业的经济效益,而且不可避免地为平均主义“大锅饭”推波助澜。解决企业冗员的问题有三难:一是难在计划经济已经形成的一大批过去由国家统一招工,统一安排就业,而现在又已经工作了几十年的职工那里。二是难在我们必须为此付出成本,其中重要的原因是我们不能离开历史去考虑问题。从高度集中的计划经济要转向社会主义市场经济,要解决过去计划经济遗留下来的许多,有的甚至是很沉重的包袱。三是难在职工的承受力和政府财力的允许度。作者认为,要解决企业的冗员问题,第一、对企业要形成能进能出的机制。第二、对个人要形成自谋职业的机制。第三、对社会要形成社会保障的机制。第四、作为国家要形成鼓励企业汲纳劳动力的机制。除了上述体制上的改革外,要从根本上解决企业冗员的问题,也只能依靠生产的发展。通过广开生产门路、拓宽生产领域、扩大生产规模等途径,探索企业冗员分流的新渠道、新办法

Market economy is filled with risk. In the meaning of economics, the risk body is the one of property. Dealing with the risk includes 4 aspects, i. e., prevent risk, disperse risk,transfer risk, and get rid of risk. People gain the most profit of operating capital mainly depends on their judgement ability of risk. Getting ride of risk is just transferring risk in essence. The mechanism of getting rid of risk is the one of transferring risk. All investment has risk inevitably. To some extent, there is no risk...

Market economy is filled with risk. In the meaning of economics, the risk body is the one of property. Dealing with the risk includes 4 aspects, i. e., prevent risk, disperse risk,transfer risk, and get rid of risk. People gain the most profit of operating capital mainly depends on their judgement ability of risk. Getting ride of risk is just transferring risk in essence. The mechanism of getting rid of risk is the one of transferring risk. All investment has risk inevitably. To some extent, there is no risk and there is no chance for getting profit. What economics studies is how to avoid risk as most as possible. Avoiding risk is not passive but active. People must handle risk actively when risk has been existed.

本文认为 ,市场经济是竞争高度激烈的经济 ,有竞争就有风险存在。市场经济是充满风险的经济。经济学意义上的风险主体 ,就是财产主体。对于风险的处理可以分为 4个方面 ,即 :防范风险、分散风险、转移风险和化解风险。人们在投资中要能够使自己取得资本盈利最大化的结果 ,不仅仅在于对资本运用情况 ,重要的在于人们对于风险的判断能力。风险退出本质上就是风险转嫁 ,风险退出机制就是风险转嫁机制。经济学领域对于投资存在着风险是从不讳言的。任何投资都不可避免地存在着风险。在某种意义上说 ,没有风险就没有机遇 ,同时也就没有效益。经济学要研究的是尽最大可能规避风险 ,取得盈利。规避风险不是对风险采取被动的行为 ,而是在意识到风险存在的前提下 ,主动迎接风险 ,富于挑战。在别人不可能企及的前提下 ,争取获得最大的盈利。

One of the fundamental targets for the SOEs’ strategic reorganization is to realize the optimization of the size distribution structureSo far,however,this target has been narrowly conceived as how to “make it large” for the SOEs,usually in the theoretical framework of the neo*Mclassical concept of scale economies for a single firmThis paper advances a new concept,the agglomerative economies of scale,by introducing the spatial dimension into the perspectiveThe economies of agglomeration is in essence a kind...

One of the fundamental targets for the SOEs’ strategic reorganization is to realize the optimization of the size distribution structureSo far,however,this target has been narrowly conceived as how to “make it large” for the SOEs,usually in the theoretical framework of the neo*Mclassical concept of scale economies for a single firmThis paper advances a new concept,the agglomerative economies of scale,by introducing the spatial dimension into the perspectiveThe economies of agglomeration is in essence a kind of external economies in the spatial context,which is intrinsically linked with the internal economies of the firms,and thus the two types of scale economies are interrelatedOn the basis of these conceptions,this paper put forward several forms of agglomerative economies that the SOEs may exploit in the strategic reorganization move

国有企业实施战略性改组的任务之一 ,是实现国有企业规模结构优化。许多人只是从新古典经济学的单个企业内部的规模经济概念出发 ,将这一任务理解为如何将国有企业“做大”问题。我们认为 ,如果引入空间向度 ,那么就应该考虑到聚集规模经济。聚集经济本质上是空间意义上的外部规模经济 ,它与单个企业内部的规模经济是互为条件 ,并在一定条件下可以互相转化的。本文初步提出了国有企业实施战略性改组中可利用的几种聚集规模经济。

 
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