The current advanced torpedo power systems over the world are summarized,including thermal power and electric power systems. In this article, the emphasis is placed on the developmental view of torpedo power. The main characteristics of torpedo thermal and electric power are compared in five aspects of specific energy and specific power,quietness,technology complexity, multi-speed or stepless speed,and life-cycle costs.
The concept of the reliability cost of weapons and military equipment is studied, which is defined to be the cost for achieving and improving the reliability of weapons and military equipment during their life cycles. Reliability cost is further divided into cost for reliability working items and redundant cost.
The full costs include infrastructure, fleet capital and operating expenses, the time users spend on the system, and the social costs of externalities, such as noise, pollution, and accidents.
At the recommended air-to-cloth ratio of 20:1, the initial capital cost was estimated as $707,900, the annual operating expenses as $226,490 and the life cycle cost as $607,510.
The flow path has a significant effect on the travel time, the operating expenses, and the installation costs of the system.
Prior research shows that mutual fund investors are often aware of up-front charges like sales loads, but they are less mindful of annual operating expenses, even though both types of fees lower overall performance.
These features dramatically lower the purchase cost, and operating expenses of this laboratory/pilot scale cell cultivation system.