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信用证欺诈     
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The Exception of Independence Rule concerning fraud in LC transact,establishedfirst by U.S.court,has been affirmed and adopted by many countries.However,itsrange of application and theoretical basis are so far in lack of unanimous agreement.Hence a lack of definite measurement.This essay,by combining with practical cases,expounds the relationship between the principle of independence rule and the exceptionto independence rule,the difference between fraud and violation of contract.Stress islaid on an explanation...

The Exception of Independence Rule concerning fraud in LC transact,establishedfirst by U.S.court,has been affirmed and adopted by many countries.However,itsrange of application and theoretical basis are so far in lack of unanimous agreement.Hence a lack of definite measurement.This essay,by combining with practical cases,expounds the relationship between the principle of independence rule and the exceptionto independence rule,the difference between fraud and violation of contract.Stress islaid on an explanation of both the subjective and objective components of LC fraudAs a result,the author puts forth a number of standards for telling fraud from,ordinary violation of contract.

美国法院首次确立的信用证交易欺诈例外原则已为各国司法实践肯定和采用。但对其运用范围和理论基础尚无定论,因而持之有据,却衡之无度。本文结合实际案例,对该原则与独立原则的关系、欺诈同违约的区别和运用条件作了阐述,进而着重论述了信用证欺诈的主客观构成要件,综合提出了衡量欺诈与违约的若干标准。

This paper deals with the main forms of cheating in letters of credit and the countermeasures against it. The main forms of the cheating are counterfeiting L/C, counterfeiting documents and files, and issuing L/C in which articles are easy to be misunderstood. The countermeasures against cheating include taking precautions, exercising the dishonour right vigorously and seeking judicial protection.

信用证欺诈的主要形式有伪造单据、伪造信用证、开立“陷阱”信用证.对策有加强预防、积极行使拒付权、寻求司法干预等.本文对跟单的、不可撤销的信用证交易中的欺诈的形式和对策进行了初步探讨和研究

The letter of credit system allows the beneficiary to secure payment without having to submit to scrutiny of whether it has fulfilled its contractual duties with the applicant. This is referred to as the principle of independence (or autonomy). However, an exception to the principle of independence has been recognized in the cases of fraud on the part of the beneficiary. The purpose of this paper is to: (a) analyze the development and the nature of the fraud exception; (b) deal with "fraud" defined, the exception...

The letter of credit system allows the beneficiary to secure payment without having to submit to scrutiny of whether it has fulfilled its contractual duties with the applicant. This is referred to as the principle of independence (or autonomy). However, an exception to the principle of independence has been recognized in the cases of fraud on the part of the beneficiary. The purpose of this paper is to: (a) analyze the development and the nature of the fraud exception; (b) deal with "fraud" defined, the exception of the fraud exception, the duties of the issuing bank once fraud is alleged, alleging fraud and seeking injunction; (c) review the practice of China's courts applying the principle of the fraud exception, and suggest alternatives to perfect the legal system of the fraud exception.

信用证的独立性 (或自主性 )原则是信用证体系赖以生存和发展的根本性原则 ,依据该原则信用证及相关的单据与合同交易是分离的。但是这种机制为受益人从事欺诈行为创造了条件 ,基于此 ,各国逐渐地发展了遏制信用证欺诈的重要制度———信用证欺诈例外。本文拟对欺诈例外的涵义及特征作一分析 ,并就欺诈例外适用中的何谓“欺诈”、欺诈例外适用的排除、开证行应如何应对欺诈例外、欺诈例外与法院禁付令的关系等重要问题进行探讨 ,并在评论我国司法实践中存在的问题的基础上 ,就我国相关法制的完善问题作一思考。

 
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