Originally the National Natural Science Award was the prize established by China Academy of Science in 1955. The projects and their supervisors that had been awarded in 1956 became the first National Natural Science Award winners. The award was ceased in the Cultural Revolution. Since the year 1978, when the National Science Conference was held, China restored its awarding system to the scientific development.
The first part of the thesis recalled the eight campaigns of study abroad in China from the Opium War to the Revolution of 1949. It also briefly introduced development of the National Natural Science Award and presented the historical background these award winners positioned.