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机会费用
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  opportunity cost
     The study shows that a market design involving lost opportunity cost minimization is structurally complicated and computationally challenging.
     研究表明一个包含机会费用的市场设计从结构上讲非常复杂 ,从计算上讲也非常有挑战性。
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  “机会费用”译为未确定词的双语例句
     One of the reasons of the opportunitycost loss is that goal market was wronsly chosenin Chinals Garment industry.
     我国服装工业机会费用损失的原因之一在于目标市场决策不当。
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  相似匹配句对
     Opportunity
     投资机会
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     Business Opportunities
     商贸机会
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     Crashing Costs
     粉碎费用
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     the charges is high;
     费用高;
短句来源
     Complex System Maintenance Cost Simulation Based on Opportunistic Maintenance Policy
     基于机会维修的复杂系统维修费用仿真研究
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  opportunity cost
This distinction leads to a different insurance demand function because the opportunity cost of purchasing insurance is now random.
      
In this case study, a quantifying framework to estimate the annual indirect use values of forest ecosystem has been established in Yaoluoping National Nature Reserve based on alternative cost method and opportunity cost method.
      
These ecological functions provide an economic value of 86.1×106 yuan (RMB) per year (US$10.37×106), which is 25 times higher than the opportunity cost for regular timber production.
      
Multi-organ thoracic transplantation, although beneficial to one recipient, has an opportunity cost of denied transplants to others.
      
However, this positive effect has been more than offset by the increase in the opportunity cost of female time which has followed closely the education attainment of women.
      
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One of the reasons of the opportunitycost loss is that goal market was wronsly chosenin Chinals Garment industry. In this paper thegood marlet was analiyxed and the way was putforward,that is chosen domestically first and thenoverseas.

我国服装工业机会费用损失的原因之一在于目标市场决策不当。文中分析并提出了中国服装工业目标市场的选择应该先国内后国外的合理途径。

In this paper, the spinning reserve market of New England electricity market is described. A new co optimization model of energy and reserve dispatch is proposed. The proposed model can accurately model the lost opportunity cost of generators providing reserves. The paper suggests a method to convert the proposed non differential optimization problem into a mixed integer programming problem and solve it using a standard branch and bound algorithm. Marginal costs of energy and reserve under several...

In this paper, the spinning reserve market of New England electricity market is described. A new co optimization model of energy and reserve dispatch is proposed. The proposed model can accurately model the lost opportunity cost of generators providing reserves. The paper suggests a method to convert the proposed non differential optimization problem into a mixed integer programming problem and solve it using a standard branch and bound algorithm. Marginal costs of energy and reserve under several market designs are derived and illustrated. The multiplicity of optimal solutions of the co optimization problem is discussed. The paper also analyzes a co optimization algorithm that is being used in New England and points out the heuristic nature of the algorithm. The study shows that a market design involving lost opportunity cost minimization is structurally complicated and computationally challenging. The main results lay down the foundations for implementing the co optimization market design suggested by FERC recently.

首先介绍了美国新英格兰电力市场备用市场的设计 ,然后提出一种在联营型电力市场中能量和备用调度的联合优化新模型。该模型是一个不可微优化模型 ,能够模拟备用机组的机会成本 ,因此比文献中报道的模型更加全面、完整。文中将联合优化模型转化为等价的混合整数优化模型 ,并建议运用分支定界法求解。针对不同的市场设计方案推导了相应的能量和备用的边际成本。讨论了联合优化问题的解的求解方法和最优解的多值性。此外 ,文中还讨论了一种常见的联合优化计算方法 ,并指出其启发性质。研究表明一个包含机会费用的市场设计从结构上讲非常复杂 ,从计算上讲也非常有挑战性。这些研究结果为实现美国联邦能源管制委员会所倡导的主辅市场联合优化设计奠定了理论基础

 
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