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土壤
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  soil
    Comparative Study on Phenotypic Plasticity of Four Mosla Species in Response to Soil Water Status
    石荠苧属(Mosla)四种植物响应土壤水分的表型可塑性比较研究
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    Study on Microbial Ecology and Bioremediation of Petroleum Polluted Soil
    原油污染土壤生物修复和微生物生态学研究
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    A NEW SPECIES OF AZOTOBACTER ISOLATED FROM THE SOIL OF FOOCHOW DISTRICT
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    THE SOIL CONTAMINATED BY CADMIUM AND CROP
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    CHARACTERISTICS AND ZONALITY OF SOIL DISTRIBUTION IN YUNNAN PROVINCE
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    Physiological Mechanisms of Cadmium Tolerance and Phytoextraction in Sedum Alfredii Hance
    东南景天对镉的耐性生理机制及其对土壤镉的提取与修复作用的研究
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    CARCINOGENIC BENZO(a)PYRENE POLLUTION IN SOIL-PLANT SYSTEM
    致癌物苯并(a)芘对土壤——植物系统污染研究
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    A NEW VIEW ABOUT RESIDUES OF BENZIMIDAZOLE FUNGICIDES IN SOH.
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    A STUDY OF FLUORIDE ABSORPTION BY PLANT IN SOIL-PLANT ECOLOGICAL SYSTEM
    土壤-植物生态系统中植物吸收氟的研究
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    Geochemical Characters of Cu,Zn,Cr,Mo in Soil-vegetation Systems in Hainan Island
    海南岛土壤—植被系统中Cu、Zn、Cr、Mo元素的化学地理特点
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  soil
An antibiotic producing strain Streptomyces violaceusniger was isolated from soil sample, characterized and studied for antibacterial and antifungal activity profile.
      
These points can be estimated by introducing the soil factor (Ks) and tree species factor (Kt) to potential evapotranspiration with the Penman formula.
      
Root biomass, length, and the number of roots in every diameter class, for each soil layer and for each plant species, are regarded as observation variables.
      
The results show that most of the vertical distributions of plant roots belong to the type wherein the roots are concentrated in the topsoil layer (0-20 cm), far more than those in the lower soil layers.
      
Ecological Benefit of Reforestation in a Severely Degraded Red Soil Region
      
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The city of Lanehow lies in the central part of China in latitude approximate 36°03′north, longitude 103°57'east, at elevation 1,508.53 M. Kowlanshan, the area surveyed, being one of the many loess plateau hills surrounding Lanchow, situates on the southeastern suburb of the city. Physiographically, the area is a part of the dissected loess plateau with an altitude of 1,508-2100 M. Owing to the influences of the geographical condition and high elevation, the climate of this area is of continental climatic type....

The city of Lanehow lies in the central part of China in latitude approximate 36°03′north, longitude 103°57'east, at elevation 1,508.53 M. Kowlanshan, the area surveyed, being one of the many loess plateau hills surrounding Lanchow, situates on the southeastern suburb of the city. Physiographically, the area is a part of the dissected loess plateau with an altitude of 1,508-2100 M. Owing to the influences of the geographical condition and high elevation, the climate of this area is of continental climatic type. The mean annual precipitation is 338.6mm. with 61.1% of it falling in June, July and August, annual mean temperature, 6.9℃., relative humidity, 58%, annual total evaporation, 3,571mm. and annual mean wind velocity 5.8m/sec. The upper portion of the hill is entirely covered with a thick layer of loess and underneath lies the red earth of the tertiary period. As a result of that, soils in the area surveyed, which has been developed from the loess, is high in calcium content. It belongs to the chestnut soil type with a PH value between 7.6 and 8.1. The vegetation of this area shows the following ecological characteristics: 1) The specific composition of the plant is rather scanty with about. 124 speeies belonging to 93 genera and 41 families; 2) The vegetation bears a simple physiognomy. No natural growth arbor been found in the whole area during the period of investigation, though a few species of cultivated trees are found and the vegetation is mainly composed of semi-frutexes and herbages; 3) Most of the essential species distributing here express distinct xeromorphic structures and many of them are typical components of the vegetation of the steppe and semi-dessect, such as Caragana spp., Hololachne soongarica Ehrenb., Artemisia spp., Chrysanthemum neofruticulosum Ledeb., Stipa spp. Achnatherum splendens Ohwi. and so on. Four plant associations are found in this area. Three of them distribute on the Dorthern slope and one on the southern slope of the hill. They are described as follow: Ⅰ. Chenupodium album+Artemisia annua+Elymus dasystachys Association. The distribution of this association is limited to the erosion valleys situating on the piedmont belt of the northern slope at an elevation between 1, 510 and 1, 560 M., where the edaphic condition is marked by high soil moisture content. The climatic features are of low light intencity with short duration of daily sunshine, high relative humidity and low wind velocity. Three hygrophilous and shade-loving species are the main constituents of this association. They are chenopodium album L., Artemisia annua L., and Elymus dasystachys Trin. Other herbaceous plants are Chenopodium glaucum L.. Sonchus aler- aceus L., Xanthium strumarium L., Polygonum amphibium L., P. aviculare L. etc. A few shrubs are present in the association. They are Lycium chinensis Mill., Lonicera heteroloba Batal. and Lonicera ferdinandi Fr. Ⅱ. Artemisia pectinata Association. The Artemisia pectinata Association occurs on the piedmont belt of the northern slope at an elevation varying from 1510 to 1580 M. It occupies the open slope with gradients under 15°. The climatic conditions, in speaking of the northern slope, are rather high in temperature, strong light intencity, low relative humidity and low wind velocity. The projective total cover-degree is about 50% and Artemisia pectinata Pall. appears to be the dominant species in the association. Besides, there are species of thermophilous and heliophilous plants such as Salsola kali L., S. arachnoides‘Moq’. Kung, Cymbaria mongolica Maxim., Artemisia capillaris Thumb., Aster altaicus willd., chrysanthemum neofruticulosum Ledeb., which are frequently scattered among the dominant plants. Plants growing in this association, are all below 10 cm. in height. They give an appearence of open association. Ⅲ. Chrysanthemum neofruticulosum+Artemisia sacrorum var. latiloba—Polytrichum sp. Association. This association, being the largest one in the surveyed area, appears on the northern slope, where it occupies the space ranging from altitude 1,580M. to the top of the hill,2,100M, above the sea level. Soil is of chestnut soil type with a PH value of 8. 0—8. 1.The soil moisture content varies between 6.0 and 7.4%(layer above 60 cm.). In vertical structure, the association consists of two strata. They are described below: Stratum Ⅰ: This stratum includes all shrubs, semi-frutexes and herbages which are taller than 10 cm. in height. Among the plants found in this stratum, chrysanthemum neofruticulosum Ledeb. and Artemisia sacrorum var. latiloba Ledeb. are dominant species and Stipa Bungeana Trin. is the subdominant one. Other species one may frequently meet with are Allium subangulatum Rag., Saussurea nigrescens Maxim., Peganumharmala L., Astragalus dahuricus Dc., Potentilla multifida L., Linum perenne L., Car-agana frutex K. Koch. etc. They spread widely in almost all over the association. Stratum Ⅱ: This stratum is composed of those species less than 10 cm. in height, forming the ground flora of the association. Polytrichum sp. and Lichens are the essential plants in the stratum. One may occasionlly find species of Plantago Lessingii and Gentiana squarrosa Ledeb. growing among those main constituents. The underground stratification of the association has also been studied during the time of surveying. IV. Stipa Bungeana+Aster altaicus+Chrysanthemum neofruticulosum Association. This association distributes on the entire southern slope except the portions tilled for agriculture purposes. The striking local ecological conditions of this association are strong light intensity with long duration of daily sunshine, high temperature, low relative humidity and extremely low in soil moisture content which ranges between 2. 7 and 4. 0% (the layer above 60cm.). On account of the severe destruction of natural vegetation by man and cattle in the past years, the degree of soil erosion is serious throughout the slope where the association locates. The PH value of the soils is 7.4-76. The polydominant plants in this association are Stipa Bungeana Trin., Aster altaicus Willd. and Chrysanthemum neofruticulosum Ledeb. They are quite adaptable to the drought condition of the environment and distribute widely in the association. Besides, other xerophilous or drought resistant plants are frequently met, such as Hololachne soongarica Ehrenb., Linum perenne L., Astranalus dahuricus Dc., Peganum harmala L., Artemisia sacrorum var. latiloba Ledeb., Artemisia capillaris Thumb., Incarvillea Iutea Bur.&Franch., Kochia scoparia Schred. etc. They dispersely grow in the association. In addition to the frequent species mentioned above, Salsola ruthenica Iljin. and S. arachnoides‘Moq’. Kung form seperately micro-associations lying scatterly on the slope. No ground flora stratum may be found and the association shows no above ground stratification. The projective total cover-degree of this association is only about 25-30%. Owing to the difference in the aspects of the northern and sourthern slopes, the climatic and edaphic conditions vary remarkable. Therefore, the vegetation of the surveyed area shows distinctions in distribution, floristic composition, physiognomy, structure, condition in growth and development of plants in the association of different slopes. Taking the floristic composition for example, the following species are entirely absent in the association of the northern slope, yet they are main components on the southern one: Pappophorum brachystachyum Taub. et Spach, Thermopsis lanceolata R. Br., Caragana spinosa Dc., Stellera chamaejasme L., Hololachne soongarica Ehrenb., Nitraria schoberi L., Pennisetum flaccidum Griseb. Differences in elevation also induce striking changes in climatic and edaphic con-ditions especially in aspects of air temperature, relative humidity and soil moisture content. All these gives great influence to the alterations either in quantity or in quality of each species distributing along the northern slope of the area. Following the seasonal change, the physiognomy of the associations expresses sucession of seasonal aspect. Vernal, aestival and autumnal aspects have been observed and recorded.

兰州位于我国的中心,约占北纬36度03分,东经103度57分,拔海1508.53米。皋兰山是兰州四周环山中的最高峰,位居兰州市东南郊。在地形上,皋兰山属于分割黄土高原山岭的一部分,拔海高度约为2100米。由于地理位置及海拔的影响,兰州的气候属大陆性气候类型。年平均温度为6.9℃,年平均雨量为338.6毫米,而61.61%集中在6、7、8、三个月,全年各月平均相对湿度为58%,年蒸发量则达3,571毫米,风力为5.8米/秒。皋兰山山岭的顶部均为厚层的黄土所掩盖,其下则为第三纪红土层。因此,调查区的土壤,全由黄土母质发育而来,含多量钙质,属栗钙土类,PH值为7.6—8.1。调查区的植被,有如下的生志特点:(1)植物种属比较贫乏:全区植物只有41科,93属,124种;(2)群落外貌单纯:调查区内缺乏自然生长的乔木,植被主要由半灌木与草本植物所构成,属干燥草原区的灌木草本群落型;(3)植物具明显旱生形态:群落主要成分,很多是干燥草原区的代表种属,如锦鸡儿属、蒿属、菊属的小黄菊(Chrysanthemum neofruticulosum Ledeb.)、羽茅属、芨芨草等。它们都具有各种适应干旱环境的形态特征...

兰州位于我国的中心,约占北纬36度03分,东经103度57分,拔海1508.53米。皋兰山是兰州四周环山中的最高峰,位居兰州市东南郊。在地形上,皋兰山属于分割黄土高原山岭的一部分,拔海高度约为2100米。由于地理位置及海拔的影响,兰州的气候属大陆性气候类型。年平均温度为6.9℃,年平均雨量为338.6毫米,而61.61%集中在6、7、8、三个月,全年各月平均相对湿度为58%,年蒸发量则达3,571毫米,风力为5.8米/秒。皋兰山山岭的顶部均为厚层的黄土所掩盖,其下则为第三纪红土层。因此,调查区的土壤,全由黄土母质发育而来,含多量钙质,属栗钙土类,PH值为7.6—8.1。调查区的植被,有如下的生志特点:(1)植物种属比较贫乏:全区植物只有41科,93属,124种;(2)群落外貌单纯:调查区内缺乏自然生长的乔木,植被主要由半灌木与草本植物所构成,属干燥草原区的灌木草本群落型;(3)植物具明显旱生形态:群落主要成分,很多是干燥草原区的代表种属,如锦鸡儿属、蒿属、菊属的小黄菊(Chrysanthemum neofruticulosum Ledeb.)、羽茅属、芨芨草等。它们都具有各种适应干旱环境的形态特征。调查区植物群落,可区分为下列的四个群丛: 1.白药+黄花蒿+厚穗滨草群丛(Chenopodium album+Artemisia annus+Elymus dasystachys Association) 本群丛分布于皋兰山山麓的侵蚀沟谷内,约占海拔1510至1560米的地段。所在地气候与土壤特点是光线弱、日照时间短、风力小、大气相对湿度大与土壤潮湿。群丛优势种有白藜、黄花蒿和厚穂滨草三种喜湿耐阴植物。此外,伴生有灰绿藜、苦苣菜、苍耳、两栖蓼、扁蓄等草本植物。灌木则可见枸杞(Lycuim chinensis Mill)、紫金银花(Lonicera heteroloba Batal.)、裴氏金银花(L.ferdinandi.Fr.)三种。 2.篦叶蒿群丛(Artemisia pectinata Association) 这一群丛占据皋兰山北坡山麓海拔1510—1580米,坡度在15°以下的开旷地段。其环境条件,在北坡来说,主要表现于阳光充沛,温度高,大气相对湿度低与土壤干燥。群丛总夏盖度约为50%,而以篦叶蒿最占优势。常见植物有钾猪毛菜、灰蓬(Salsola arachnoides‘moq’Kung)、蒙古芯芭(Cymbaria mongolica Maxim.)、茵陈蒿、阿尔泰紫菀、小黄菊等喜光喜温种类。 3.小黄菊+供蒿-藓群丛(Chrysanthemum neofruticulosum+Artemisia sacrorum var latiloba-Polytrichum sp. Association) 本群丛包括皋兰山北坡自海拔1580米以上一直至山顶(海拔2100米)的全部地段,为调查区内分布面积最广的群丛。其生态环境是阳光弱、日照时间短、蒸发量小、气温低;土镶为栗钙土,PH值在8.0—8.1左右,土壤风干含水量为5.2—5.6%。群丛在垂直结构上,可分为两层:第一层包括高度在10厘米以上的灌木、半灌木与草本植物,而以小黄菊和供蒿最占优势。本氏羽茅则为本属中的亚优势种。常见植物尚有野葱、青木香(Saussurea nigrescens Maxim.)、骆驼蓬、达乌里紫云英,多裂委陵菜、宿根亚麻、木锦鸡儿(Caragana frutex K. Koch.)等。第二层为地被层,主要由藓类和地衣所组成。此外,偶尔出现细叶车前(Plantago Lessingii)与鳞叶龙胆(Gentiana squarrosa Ledeb.)铺地生长。群丛总复盖度约为67%。 4.本氏羽茅+阿尔泰紫菀+小黄菊群丛(Stipa Bungeana+Aster altaicus+Chrysanthemum neofruticulosum Association) 这一群丛占皋兰山南坡除农田以外的全部地区。其气候与土壤条件,可归纳为下:日晒强烈、日照时间长、气温高;人为对自然植被破坏强烈,表土冲刷现象异常严重。土壤水分含量甚低,仅占风干重的1.88—3.41%,pH值为7.4—7.6。本氏羽茅、阿尔泰紫菀与小黄菊为群丛中的主要种类。它们对于干旱的环境均具有强大的适应力。其他常见植物有红砂、宿根亚麻、达乌里紫云英、骆驼蓬、供蒿、茵陈蒿、黄角蒿(Incarvillea lutea Bur.&Franch.)地肤等抗旱或耐旱种类。苏联猪毛菜(Salsola rutheniea Iljin)和灰蓬,常各成单纯小群丛,出现于山坡间。本群丛中缺地被层,无地上成层现象。群丛总复盖度仅为25—30%。由于南北坡取向不同所引起气候与土壤因子的变化,调查区植物群落,在分布、结构、外貌、种类成分及生长发育状况上,也随着发生很大的差异。海拔高度的改变,对气温、相对湿度,土温及土壤水分状况的影晌,也明显地反映在群落中各个种间的数量比例关系上。随着季节的更换,群落中的种类成分,表现出比较显著的季相演替关系。作者等曾作北坡群丛春、夏和秋三季季相的观察与纪录。

A series of experiments have been carried out in order to compare the effi- ciency of Beaver's method with Baermann's in isolating hookworm larvae from soil. Beaver's method appears to be superior to Baermann's in several respects as our experiments have indicated.

1.本文对Beaver氏的紗布垫鈎虫幼虫分離法作了詳細的介紹。 2.通过試驗表明,对于土壤表层的鈎虫幼虫,紗布垫法的分離效果至少可以和Baermann氏法相匹敵,但是紗布垫法还可以分離土壤深處的鈎虫幼虫,这是Baermann氏法所不能做到的,因此幼虫施下时間越久,兩种方法相比較,紗布垫法的優越性也就越突出。对于幾种不同土壤紗布垫法的分離效果也較好。我們还采用过在Baermann氏法取士之前先在地上淋水的办法,試圖改进Baermann氏法的分離效果,但是效果的提高并不顯著。这些試驗都說明紗布垫法是比Baermann氏法更为有效的分離土壤中鈎虫幼虫的方法。

Stools of 852 inhabitants in a national farm of Hainan Island were ex- amined and the hookworm eggs were counted. A discussion of the epidemiology on the hookworm disease is made with special reference to the planting of such economic plants as coffee, Agave sisalana, Cymbopogon spp etc. Infection of Strongyloides stercoralis were recorded.

十一、1.所調查的万宁縣的一国营农埸是一新型的集体农莊。有埸員5.000人左右。經营以經济作物(香茅、咖啡、剑麻)为主,其他农作物为付。2,检查埸員658人糞便的结果,鈎蟲感染率77.7%,蛔蟲63.8%,鞭蟲43.9%。3.鈎蟲感染率以男性(81.8%)略高于女性(76.2%),蛔蟲感染率以女性(71.4%)高于男性(57.1%),鞭蟲感染率亦以女性(47.3%)略高于男性(40.9%)。4.所检查658人中全部用陈心陶氏等設計之直接塗片法作蟲卵計算的結果,每人每克糞便平均含蟲卵1,345个,若陰性者除外,則阳性者粪便每克平均含虫卵1,695个,其中以輕度感染者(虫卵数在400-2,999之間)为数最多,占总数49.4%;極輕微感染者,占17.9%;中度感染者占10.6%;嚴重感染者僅占全人数1.2%而已。5.男性鈎蟲感染率雖較女性为高,但男性平均每克粪便含蟲卵数(1,160个)遠較女性(1,550个)为低。就阳性者言,差別更大。男阳性者粪便平均每克含蟲卵1,415个,而女性則为2,035个。6.統計的結果,农業劳动者感染率(92.6%)遠较非农業劳动(70.1%)为高。就感染強度言,农業劳动者每克糞便平均...

十一、1.所調查的万宁縣的一国营农埸是一新型的集体农莊。有埸員5.000人左右。經营以經济作物(香茅、咖啡、剑麻)为主,其他农作物为付。2,检查埸員658人糞便的结果,鈎蟲感染率77.7%,蛔蟲63.8%,鞭蟲43.9%。3.鈎蟲感染率以男性(81.8%)略高于女性(76.2%),蛔蟲感染率以女性(71.4%)高于男性(57.1%),鞭蟲感染率亦以女性(47.3%)略高于男性(40.9%)。4.所检查658人中全部用陈心陶氏等設計之直接塗片法作蟲卵計算的結果,每人每克糞便平均含蟲卵1,345个,若陰性者除外,則阳性者粪便每克平均含虫卵1,695个,其中以輕度感染者(虫卵数在400-2,999之間)为数最多,占总数49.4%;極輕微感染者,占17.9%;中度感染者占10.6%;嚴重感染者僅占全人数1.2%而已。5.男性鈎蟲感染率雖較女性为高,但男性平均每克粪便含蟲卵数(1,160个)遠較女性(1,550个)为低。就阳性者言,差別更大。男阳性者粪便平均每克含蟲卵1,415个,而女性則为2,035个。6.統計的結果,农業劳动者感染率(92.6%)遠较非农業劳动(70.1%)为高。就感染強度言,农業劳动者每克糞便平均含蟲卵1,715个,非农業劳动者是770个,前者为后者的2.2倍。7.就各不同工种分別統計的結果,感染率依次排列是:牧牛(100%),咖啡(96%),飼养(94%),其它农業劳动(胡椒、霍香、蔬菜等,93%),香茅(92%),水田和水浮蓮(91%),劍麻(90%),机动雜工(89%),苗圃(84%)。感染強度依次排列是:咖啡(每克糞便平均含蟲卵2,610个),其它农業劳动(2,420个),牧牛(1,605个),机动雜工(1,580个),飼养(1,560个),香茅(1,480个),劍麻(1,380个),苗圃(1,355个),水田和水浮蓮(1,290个)。同一工种中,女性感染強度皆較男性为高。8.調查188人的血紅素的結果,男性平均达80%,與鈎蟲感染強度无顯著關系。女性血紅素平均72.3%,随鈎蟲感染的強度而降低。一般說來,无論男女,血紅素濃度都是相当高的。这是由於农民生活改善及当地瘧疾基本上被扑灭的緣故。9.在农場范圍內,雜居着少数民族,即所謂“居民点”的居民。經調查194人的糞便的結果,其鈎蟲感染率和感染強度僅畧高於农場居民,其血紅素平均也與农場場員相接近。10.鈎蟲感染因素,主要是由於当地野糞的情形極普遍,各工种中,以咖啡栽培对鈎蟲病的流行關系最大,其次胡椒栽培與鈎蟲病關系不应忽視。“居民点”居民以叢林作大便所,可能是鈎蟲感染的重要來源。11.海南島野糞在短时間內皆被金龜子甲蟲所翻埋。可能因此更有利於鈎蟲幼蟲的发育和感染。在野糞的土壤中采得金龜子甲虫共有9-10种。12.农場中糞线蟲感染率0.61%,“居民点”糞線蟲感染率是1.55%。若检查方法改善,相信其感染率不止此数。

 
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