Next, the mathematical model for the optimization of the combined pipe is set up, in which the total wall thickness of the combined pipe, tile wall thickness of GFRP out-sleeve and the wound angle of the glass fibre are chosen as design variables, the materials cost of the combined pipe per unit length is taken as an objective function, and the strength requirement of steel pipe and the deformation limitation of GFRP are considered as constraints as well.
The intein purification process initially simulated was significantly more expensive than the conventional process, primarily owing to the properties of the chitin resin and high reducing-agent (dithiothreitol [DTT]) raw material cost.
Minimum material cost design of five-layer sandwich beams
The minimum material cost design is worked out for such five-layer sandwich beams using the Rosenbrock Hillclimb mathematical programming method.
The objective is to minimize the sum of construction material cost and the expected failure loss under severe earthquake, which is obtained by the sum of the products of the failure probability and its failure losses for the important failure modes.
This method provides a simple fabrication process and low material cost.
The analytical technique estimates the annual savings in materials cost for an average store using the information technology to be over $4,000 (2.04% of materials cost), well in excess of the amortized annual cost for its installation.
The re-evaluation of previous and existing methods in materials processing is becoming ever more critical because of processing and starting materials cost factors.
This new class of electrocatalysts promises to alleviate the major problems of existing fuel cell technology by simultaneously decreasing materials cost and enhancing performance.
The materials cost for such a system may be quite high, but the maintenance cost savings will much more than offset these costs.
A small charge was made to participants to cover materials cost and refreshments for the day.
This paper considers the problem of minimizing the fixed cost of acquiring material handling transporters and the operational cost of material transfer in a manufacturing system.
However, the cost of material for these anastomoses was significantly (P >amp;lt; 0.001) higher, resulting in significantly higher total costs for reconstruction.
After the evaluation of processing, cost of material and strength properties of the composite, we would suggest that the use of 70% of wood particles and 30% of plastic powder is practical to produce proper sized composites.
The cost function includes the cost of material, assembly, welding and painting.
The new test can be run fully automated, and the cost of material per sample is much lower than in the DAVIS method.
Rapid tube assimilation and dye-pour-plate auxanographic methods were least expensive, with labour and material costing around $ 1.00 per identification, whereas the commercial system cost a little over $ 5.00.