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黑麂
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  black muntjac
     Shrubs were the most important food of black muntjac, accounting for 55.4% of the diet. Cephalotaxus fortunei, Smilax glabra, Itea chinensis var.oblonga,Kadsura longipedunculata and Trachelospermum jasminoides were the species most frequently eaten. The percentages of these items in the diet were 17%, 16.5%, 9%, 8.7% and 4.3%, respectively.
     三尖杉 (Cephalotaxus fortunei)、光叶菝葜(Smilax glabra)、矩圆叶鼠刺(Itea chinensis var. oblonga)、南五味子(Kadsura longipedunculata)和络石(Trachelospermum jasminoides)为黑麂四季都取食且在食物组成中所占比例较高的植物,分别为 17%、16.5%、9%、8.7%和 4.3%,是黑麂取食的主要食物。
短句来源
     Population Density, Habitat Utilization and Suitability Evaluation of Black Muntjac (Muntiacus Crinifrons)
     黑麂种群密度、栖息地利用及其栖息地适宜性评价
短句来源
     Black Muntjac Faecal DNA Extraction Techniques in PCR Reaction
     黑麂粪便DNA提取及其PCR检测
短句来源
     REPRODUCTION OF THE CHINESE BLACK MUNTJAC (Muntiacus crinifrons Sclater )
     黑麂(Muntiacus crinifrons Sclater)的繁殖
短句来源
     Culture of Fibroblast Cells and Interspecies Embryos Reconstruction in Black Muntjac In vitro
     黑麂耳成纤维细胞培养及异种重构胚构建
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  tufted deer
     Food Habits of the Black Muntjac (Muntiacus crinifrons)and the Tufted Deer (Elaphodus cephalphus)
     黑麂和毛冠鹿的食性
短句来源
  “黑麂”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Application of 12S rRNA in the identification of Muntiacus crinifons and Muntiacus reevesi
     12S rRNA在黑麂和黄麂物种鉴定中的应用
短句来源
     The single Y chromosome of Muntiacus reevesi an d Y 1,Y 2 ,X+4,1 chromosome of Muntiacus crinifrons were obtained by flow-sorting ,then they were amplified through DOP-PCR .
     以流式细胞仪分离小麂(Muntiacus reevesi)Y染色体和黑麂(Muntiacus crinifrons)Y1,Y2,X+4和1号染色体,利用DOP-PCR技术富集了分离的各单条染色体。
短句来源
     The population density was estimated to be 3.30±0.45(ind./km2)in the nature reserve,then in core area,cushion area and experiment area the densities were signifi-cantly different by one way variance analysis(P<0.01).
     结果表明,区内黑麂平均密度为3.30±0.45只/km2,单因素方差分析表明,核心区、缓冲区、实验区黑麂种群密度存在极显著差异(F2,37=19.31,P<0.01)。
短句来源
     Juvenile mortality has been low (7.84%) in captive animals and the predominant cause of death (56%) in captive adult black muntjacs has been infection of the intestines and lungs.
     圈养条件下黑麂幼年的死亡率较低 ( 7 84 % ) ,成年黑麂多死于消化道及呼吸道感染等疾病 ( 5 6% )。
短句来源
     Interaction behavior appeared more in the early morning or in the late afternoon. Behaviors among female and male were sexual (53.07%) and intinate (46.15%), while among the females disturbance (68.35%) and intimate (31.65%), among the males mainly hostile.
     黑麂个体间的交往多发生在晨昏,雌雄之间多表现为性行为(53.07%)和亲密行为(46.15%),雌雌之间主要表现为骚扰行为(68.35%)和亲密行为(31.65%),而雄雄之间则主要表现为敌对行为。
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  black muntjac
The two resulting trees share a similar topology, which indicates that the black muntjac and the Gongshan muntjac are closely related, followed by the Chinese muntjac; the Indian muntjac is the sister taxon to all the other muntjacs.
      
Mitochondrial DNA Genetic Diversity of Black Muntjac (Muntiacus crinifrons), An Endangered Species Endemic to China
      
Genetic diversities based on the mtDNA control region were measured for both a wild population (n = 26) and a captive population (n = 18) of the black muntjac.
      
The wild population exhibited a low nucleotide diversity (π = 0.00562), which suggests that the black muntjac had a small effective population size historically.
      
Microsatellite Analysis of Genetic Variation and Population Subdivision for the Black Muntjac, Muntiacus crinifrons
      
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  black deer
Alternative 2 roads in the Six Shooter Black Deer Project Area.
      
Alternative 1 and 3 roads in the Six Shooter Black Deer Project Area.
      
Alternative 2 treatments in the Six Shooter Black Deer Project Area.
      
Alternative 3 treatments in the Six Shooter Black Deer Project Area.
      
Alternative 2 follow-up treatments, Six Shooter Black Deer Project Area.
      
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  tufted deer
A set of Chinese muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi) chromosome-specific paints has been hybridized onto the metaphases of sika deer (Cervus nippon, CNI, 2n = 66), red deer (Cervus elaphus, CEL, 2n = 62) and tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus, ECE, 2n = 47).
      
Thirty-three homologous autosomal segments were detected in genomes of sika deer and red deer, while 31 autosomal homologous segments were delineated in genome of tufted deer.
      
In addition to Robertsonian translocation, tandem fusions have played a more important role in the karyotypic evolution of tufted deer.
      


A simple cell-synchrohization technique by BrdU treatment in vitro was described in this paper. More prophase and prometaphase cells may be obtained by this technique. The chromosomes revealed distinct R-bands and G-bands on the same preparation after special staining. The different proportion of R-bands and G-bands in 4 species of Mammals (human, red muntjak, black muntjak, and Chinese hamster) have been reported. The technique described here may be of interest as an easy method for inducing banding patterns...

A simple cell-synchrohization technique by BrdU treatment in vitro was described in this paper. More prophase and prometaphase cells may be obtained by this technique. The chromosomes revealed distinct R-bands and G-bands on the same preparation after special staining. The different proportion of R-bands and G-bands in 4 species of Mammals (human, red muntjak, black muntjak, and Chinese hamster) have been reported. The technique described here may be of interest as an easy method for inducing banding patterns of chromosomes.

本文描述了一种简化的细胞同步化技术。在培养基中加入5-溴脱氧尿嘧啶核苷(BrdU)使细胞同步化6—8小时,可以得到较多的前期和前中期分裂细胞。经分带染色后,能在一张玻片上同时显出良好的R带和G带。我们采用该技术处理人、赤麂、黑麂、中国仓鼠细胞后得到不同比例的R带和G带,带纹较为清晰,易于辨认,分辨率也比较高,有些染色体的带纹数目要比常规方法所作的R带和G带带纹多。

In present study the technique simultaneously exhibited replication patterns along the chromosomes and late replicating sex chromosomes in mammals has been developed. Using this technique the studies of the chromosomes in 5 species of mammals, i.e. Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus), mouse (Mus muscu-lus), Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus), red muntjac (Muntiacus muntjak), and black muntjac (Muntiacus crinifrons) were performed. The results showed that all chromosomes of each species have exhibited...

In present study the technique simultaneously exhibited replication patterns along the chromosomes and late replicating sex chromosomes in mammals has been developed. Using this technique the studies of the chromosomes in 5 species of mammals, i.e. Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus), mouse (Mus muscu-lus), Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus), red muntjac (Muntiacus muntjak), and black muntjac (Muntiacus crinifrons) were performed. The results showed that all chromosomes of each species have exhibited replication patterns, and late replicating regions of sex chromosomes lightly stained. In female individuals a late replicating X chromosome which genetically was inactive slightly stained and could be discriminated from the autosomes and other X chromosome. Some of late replicating Xs were slightly stained evenly, but in other Xs late replicated there are several early replicating bands stained intensely. In male muntjac (red and black muntjac) Y chromosome was late replicating which was stained slightly. It was also demostrated that the technique are simple and reliablej replication patterns obtained by this method were clear, and slightly stained late replicating,chromosome could be identified easily.

以一种改进的可以同时显示哺乳动物染色体复制带和晚复制性染色体的技术,可以在中国仑鼠(Cricetulus griseus),小鼠(Mus musculus),獴(Herpestes auropunctatus),赤麂(Muntiacus muntjak)和黑麂(Muntiacus crinifrons)五种哺乳动物中,清晰地显示染色体的复制带,性染色体的晚复制区域淡染也易于鉴别。在雌性个体中,遗传功能失活的晚复制X染色体淡染色,可以和常染色体以及另一条X染色体鉴别。此外,有些晚复制X染色体呈均匀地淡染色,而另一些晚复制X染色体上还出现一些深染的早复制带纹。在雄性赤麂和黑麂中,Y染色体是淡染色的晚复制染色体。这种改进的技术步骤简化,结果可靠,带纹也较清晰,淡染的晚复制染色体易于识别。

Surface-spread and silver-stained preparation of spermatocytes of three species of muntjac have been analyzed by electron microscopy.Evidence is presented that autosomal SCs decrease in length from early to late pachytene.The relative lengths and centromeric indexes of each SC are in accordance with those of corresponding mitotic chromosome.Diploid chromosome number of Chinese muntjac M.reevesi is 46 in both sexes,of Indian muntjac M.munijak is 6 in the female,7 in the male,and of Black muntjac M.crinifrons...

Surface-spread and silver-stained preparation of spermatocytes of three species of muntjac have been analyzed by electron microscopy.Evidence is presented that autosomal SCs decrease in length from early to late pachytene.The relative lengths and centromeric indexes of each SC are in accordance with those of corresponding mitotic chromosome.Diploid chromosome number of Chinese muntjac M.reevesi is 46 in both sexes,of Indian muntjac M.munijak is 6 in the female,7 in the male,and of Black muntjac M.crinifrons is 8 in the female,9 in the male.A multivalem at pachytene of Black muntjac implies that two translocations and an inversion have occurred during the karyotypic evolution of the animal.Six types of the XY bivalent have been described morphologically.Pairing of the XY starts at early pachytene.At mid-pachytene almost whole Y pairs with X.The XY-SC gradually disappears during late pachytene.The presence of a hair-pinlike structure of the X chromosome suggests that the X chromosome should contain a duplicated segment as a result of an unbalanced translocation between original X and Y chromosome.

本工作以界面铺张——硝酸银染色技术,对小麂(Muntiacus reeuesi)、黑麂(M.crinifrons)和赤麂(M.muntjak)的精母细胞联会复合体(Syna ptonemal complex,SC)进行亚显微结构的比较研究。结果表明: 1.SC的平均相对长度和臂比指数同有丝分裂细胞相应染色体的数值有很好的一致性。根据SC的相对长度和臂比指数绘制了三种麂的SC组型图。雄性黑麂减数分裂前期形成一个复杂的易位多价体,意味着其核型的演化过程涉及两次染色体易位和一次臂间倒位。 2.在减数分裂前期,性染色体的形态和行为同常染色体的有明显差异,如性染色体嗜银性较强,配对延迟等。XY的配对起始于早粗线期,在中粗线期,Y的全长均同X配对;XY-SC开始解体于晚粗线期。 3.在粗线期,X染色体未配对区域出现自身折叠,形成“发夹”状结构。这种“发夹”结构的形成,可能是在性染色体的进化过程中,X染色体通过不对称易位得到的重复片段在减数分裂前期同源配对的一种细胞学表现。

 
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