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分枝根系
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     Defoliation and root rottingbecome progressively serious as the disease advances.
     根系腐烂。
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     Plant root exudates.
     根系分泌物
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     Formation of the Root Branches of Different Orders and Their Anatomical Structures in Winter Wheat
     冬小麦根系各级分枝形成及其解剖结构研究
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     MODEL OF PLANT BIFURCATION
     植物分枝模型
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     Bifurcation of Sunflower Equations
     向日葵方程的分枝
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  branched root system
diandra had the most finely branched root system, i.e., the highest specific root length of the three species and its root surface area to leaf surface area ratio was also the highest.
      
Lateral root elongation seems to be the limiting factor in the development of a branched root system.
      
Plants grown in sand medium show fewer and smaller stomata, a shorter and profusely branched root system and also a decrease in organic acid metabolism, as compared with plants grown in garden soil.
      
The development of a fibrous, well-branched root system has been a problem that may be solved by using rooting substrates that are better-aerated than agar.
      
The transgenic plants were of similar morphotype having increased branching, higher number of leaves with increased dentations, short and round stature, highly branched root system and absence of leaf wrinkling.
      


Branching order of lateral roots is a fundamental characteristic of form in root system,roots of different orders display markedly differences in morphology,anatomy,physiology,and longevity.However,the position of an individual root on the complex lateral branching network has often been ignored,and the knowledge of relationships between the formation of the branching roots and function is limited.More recently,studies on root order have found that fine roots of the first-order at the distal end of a root system,which...

Branching order of lateral roots is a fundamental characteristic of form in root system,roots of different orders display markedly differences in morphology,anatomy,physiology,and longevity.However,the position of an individual root on the complex lateral branching network has often been ignored,and the knowledge of relationships between the formation of the branching roots and function is limited.More recently,studies on root order have found that fine roots of the first-order at the distal end of a root system,which primary function is nutrient uptake rather than storage and transport,are thinner in root diameter with higher tissue nitrogen(N) concentrations,and lower total nonstructural carbohydrates(TNC) concentrations.Thus,they have a shorter longevity in contrast with higher order roots.The questions are what changes in morphology with increasing root orders and how many fine roots will die? To answer these questions is critical for understanding the function of branching order and the linkage between fine root mortality and branching system.The objectives of this study are: 1) to examine variations of fine root diameter,length,specific root length(SRL) and biomass with increasing orders;and 2) to determinate the proportion between mother roots and daughter roots among five orders through two temperature species of Fraxinus mandshurica and Larix gmelinii.The study site is located at Maoershan Forest Research Station(45°21′~45°25′N,127°30′~127°34′ E) owned by Northeast Forestry University,in Harbin,China.Both forests were planted in 1986.In each plantation,we established three plots(20 m×30 m) on the site of 480~500 m in altitude.On May 15,July 15 and September 15 of 2003,three/four small intact segments of the fine root system were excavated carefully at a random location in each plot.Soil blocks(20 cm×20 cm×10 cm) were excavated from the sties at 0~10 cm and 11~20 cm in depth and all the intact root segments were collect.Once excavated,the intact segments were put into plastic bags with ice,and were severed at a set temperature of 0~2℃.In the laboratory,each individual root was dissected by order beginning with the distal end of a root system,and increasing sequentially with each branch from the first-order to higher order roots.After the dissection,diameter,length,and dry weight of a given order were determined.The results showed that mean diameter and length of fine root in both trees increased significantly(p<0.05) from the first-to fifth-order roots,and SRL decreased significantly(p<0.05).The first-order roots at the distal end of a root system had smaller diameter,shorter length,and larger SRL in contrast with higher order roots.Root biomass varied significantly with root order,the fifth-order roots had the highest biomass,biomass of the first-order roots was higher than that of the second-to fourth orders in Fraxinus mandshurica and higher than that of the second-orders in Larix gmelinii,respectively.In both trees,root numbers deceased significantly(p<0.05) from the first-to fifth-order roots,the first-order roots accounted for 80~90% of total root numbers among the five orders,therefore,the vast majority of roots was the first-order roots.Within the same order,root number varied with different seasons,suggesting that only a subset of the fine root population undergoes the transition from the first-order to higher-order root.It is noteworthy that root number in surface soil(0~10cm) was double higher than that in subsurface soil(11~20cm).In contrast to root number,proportions between mother roots and daughter roots form the fifth-to second-order was 3,and had similar branch patterns in both species and soil depth.However,the proportion between the first-order to second-order was about 10~12(for Fraxinus mandshurica) and 8(for Larix gmelinii),which exhibited a branch pattern of herringbone or cluster in the first-order roots.If the branch pattern of roots in higher order was similar between the second-and first-order roots,65%~75% of the first-order roots in total root number will be dead,these dead roots accounted for 40%~50% of total root length,and 20%~30% of total biomass,respectively.

细根(直径<2 mm)的分枝是根系重要的结构特征,不同根序等级的细根在养分和水分吸收、C的消耗和寿命方面具有较大的差异,定量研究各根序等级之间的比例关系对认识细根死亡的顺序具有重要的理论意义。根据Pregitzer等2002年提供的方法,研究了17年生水曲柳(Fraxinus mandshuricaRupr.)和落叶松(Larix gmeliniiRupr.)人工纯林1~5级细根的直径、长度、比根长、生物量和数量。结果表明,两树种细根中1级根序的数量占总根系数量80%~90%,它们直径小、长度短、比根长高。随着根序等级(1级~5级)的增加细根直径增粗和长度增加、比根长减小。细根的数量和生物量在上下土层的分布受土壤资源有效性的影响。水曲柳5级根序~2级根序之间母根与子根的数量关系是1∶3,落叶松是1∶2~3。2级根序与1级根序之间母根与子根的数量关系,水曲柳是1∶10~12,落叶松是1∶8。如果当年生长的1级细根当中保持1:3的比例,将有65%~75%的1级细根死亡,占根系总数的55%~65%,总长度的40%~50%,以及总生物量的20%~30%。

This experiment studied effects of different CO_2 enrichment on growth and enzymes activities related to nitrogen metabolism of roots of cultured cucumber seedlings.It concluded that roots of cucumber seedlings speeded up with CO_2 concentration and time added.CO_2 enrichment could promote total root length,fresh weight,branching,root activity,root absorption area,nitrate reductase,glutamine synthetase activities.The effect of enrichment 950±50 mmol·L~(-1) CO_2 enrichment for each 3 hours a.m.and p.m.excelled...

This experiment studied effects of different CO_2 enrichment on growth and enzymes activities related to nitrogen metabolism of roots of cultured cucumber seedlings.It concluded that roots of cucumber seedlings speeded up with CO_2 concentration and time added.CO_2 enrichment could promote total root length,fresh weight,branching,root activity,root absorption area,nitrate reductase,glutamine synthetase activities.The effect of enrichment 950±50 mmol·L~(-1) CO_2 enrichment for each 3 hours a.m.and p.m.excelled that of enrichment a.m.except for enzymes related to nitrogen metabolism.

以砂培黄瓜为试材,研究了不同CO2施肥处理对幼苗根系生育和氮代谢相关酶活性的影响。结果表明,增加环境CO2浓度和延长CO2施肥时间均明显促进了黄瓜幼苗根系的发育,CO2施肥黄瓜的主根长度、总根长度、根系鲜重、根系分枝、根系活力及其吸收面积均有不同程度的增加;根系硝酸还原酶和谷氨酰胺合成酶活性增强。除氮代谢酶活性外,每天上、下午各以950±50 mmol.L-1CO2施肥3 h的效果大于仅在上午施肥。

 
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