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降水
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  precipitation
    A Study of Organic Acid in Precipitation for Lanzhou City
    兰州市区降水中有机酸研究
短句来源
    The Change of Precipitation During the Recent 40 Years and Its Influences on Climatic Productivity in China
    我国近40年降水的变化及对气候生产力的影响
短句来源
    The objective of this paper was to determine the relationship s between the behaviors of stable isotope contents (δD) and the patte rns of water transportation in precipitation, spring water and soil water.
    根据2003年夏季测得的四川卧龙自然保护区亚高山暗针叶林地区3个不同群落的降水、土壤水、浅层地下水(泉水)氢稳定同位素含量(δD),分析土壤剖面各层次土壤水氢稳定同位素的变化规律及其与水分迁移的关系。
短句来源
    2) The distri bution pattern of δD for the soil profiles of the 3 communities reflected the change of δD for the precipitation.
    2)A、B、C群落土壤垂直剖面的土壤水δD空间分布形式反映了降水δD的时间变化特征。
短句来源
    The constant val ue of δD may suggest that shallow underground water represent the average conditions of precipitation over the years.
    4)浅层地下水δD受降水δD的直接影响不明显,变化幅度很小,浅层地下水δD的稳定性说明地下水代表了多年降水的平均状态。
短句来源
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  rainfall
    A Quantitative Study of Different Directions of Rainfall in Plain Area of the East Part of Hebei Province
    河北省东部平原区降水不同去向的定量研究
短句来源
    An Analysis of Rainfall Features and Its Matching Counter measures for Sustainable Agricultural Development in Dingxi Arid and Semiarid Areas
    定西半干旱区降水特征分析及农业持续发展的匹配对策
短句来源
    Tntensifying Rainfed Agricultural Construction to Promote Rainfed Agricultural Development Checking Rainfall Water and Making it Penetrate into the Ground Where It falls and Highly Effective Use of Technical System
    加强雨养农业建设,促进旱区农业发展——“全拦降水,就地入渗,高效利用”技术体系的探讨
短句来源
    Optimum Regression Model Between Rainfall and Wheat Yield
    降水因子与小麦产量最优回归模型的探讨
短句来源
    Study oh Technique of High-efficiency Utilization of Rainfall Resources in Semi-arid Area
    半干旱区降水资源高效利用技术研究
短句来源
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  “降水”译为未确定词的双语例句
    Effect of Fertilization in Different Types or Rainrall Years Upon the Productivity of Dryland Spring Wheat
    不同降水年型施肥对旱地春小麦生产力的影响初探
短句来源
    Study of three-dimensional agroclimatic resources in Pengzhou
    彭州市立体农业气候资源的研究(一)降水资源分析
短句来源
    We made threesoil moisture control: NaturalS2, adaptableS3 (60%-75% of moisture capacity)and sufficientS4(>75% of moisture capacity);
    设置三个水分处理自然降水S2、适宜水分S3(田间持水量的60%─75%)、充足水分区S4(田间持水量的75%以上);
短句来源
    At PI < 20.0mm2/min, level terrace accomplish conservation, its benefit was 100%;
    在次降雨条件下,当PI<20.0 mm~2/min时,水平梯田完全可以做到全部降水拦蓄,其蓄水保土效益为100%;
短句来源
    It could obsorb 0.827mm ofrainfall.
    枯落物量平均4.45t/hm2,可吸收降水0.827mm;
短句来源
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  precipitation
The water-soluble glucan was obtained from Pleurotus florida fruit bodies by hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation, DEAE cellulose dialysis and Sephadex G-75 gel filtration.
      
Preparation and characterization of nanocrystalline ZnO by direct precipitation method
      
Nanocrystalline ZnO was prepared with ZnCl2·2H2O and (NH4)2CO3 as raw materials by direct precipitation method.
      
The ion-exchanger LiAlTiO4 of spinel type was prepared by the common precipitation/hydrothermal crystallization method, and was acid-modified.
      
The precursors of Fe2O3-SiO2 mixed oxides prepared through co-precipitation method were modified by microwave hydrothermal treatment for the first time.
      
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  rainfall
The two sites have similar altitudes, soil types, annual mean rainfall and seasonality of dry and wet.
      
At the same time, better correlative relationship between runoff and sediment production and rainfall and rainfall intensity were testified by multiple regression, but the correlation decreased gradually with the increase of canopy density of forest.
      
When the soil is covered only by litter, both the maximal rainfall amount and intensity in different forest stands are different if there is no water infiltration and runoff from the ground surface.
      
The river runoff had a close correlation with annual rainfall, the size of forest harvesting and regeneration.
      
The reduction of peak flow rates was significant when rainfall peak was higher than 0.8 mm/min, especially for short-term rainfall events.
      
更多          


The roles of the natural development and some properties of the soilsin this area are briefly discussed as follows:The soils are saline and calcareous in nature,in which over 70% of thetotal soluble salts are sodium chloride.Slight to moderate alkalinizationmay be developed,while the total soluble salt contents exceed 0.2%;butgenerally,there is no NaCO_3 present.The ground water table in this areais usally high,and the quantity and constituents of the salts in groundwater are directly varied with and influenced...

The roles of the natural development and some properties of the soilsin this area are briefly discussed as follows:The soils are saline and calcareous in nature,in which over 70% of thetotal soluble salts are sodium chloride.Slight to moderate alkalinizationmay be developed,while the total soluble salt contents exceed 0.2%;butgenerally,there is no NaCO_3 present.The ground water table in this areais usally high,and the quantity and constituents of the salts in groundwater are directly varied with and influenced by that contained in the abovesoils.The saline and alkali properties of soils in this area are originatedfrom the parent materials,through the action of the sea water when theywere deposited.As soon as the sea water ceased to affect,the soils as wellas the ground water are gradurally desalinized by natural leaching and thisprocess will be strengthened by the biological activities.As the desalinization of the soils is proceeded further,the ratio ofNa~+/Ca~(++)+Mg~(++)in the soil solution decreased and the amount of the exchan-geable Na on the soil colloidal complex is finally lowered.It is evident thatdesalinization also introduces the dealkalinization of the soils in this area;there is no hazard of strong alkalinization of the soils taken place throughleaching.

本文简要地说明了江苏省沿海地区盐渍土壤的自然发生过程及盐渍特性转化的规律,文中主要论点,可初步归纳如下:1、本区域的土壤,发育于盐渍性的冲积母质,土层中富含以氯化钠为主的可溶性盐类,并呈一定的“碱性”。土壤碱性表现在两方面:一方面是土壤胶体表面存在有较多的吸附性钠,另方面表现在本身具有较高的pH 值。2、在自然发生过程中,土壤盐渍性为地质过程遗留的影响;随受自然降水淋盐,河沟排水排盐及生物作用的影响,开始“脱盐、脱碱”和肥力积累过程,发育成为本区内现存的各种不同盐渍程度的土壤。3、随着土壤脱盐作用的进行,土壤盐渍的组成在变化;主要是可溶性盐阴离子中钠离子的含量淋失较速,最后降低了土壤溶液中Na~+/Ca~(++)比率。由于这种盐渍组成的改变,土壤胶体上吸收性Na~+也相应的降低,从而导致土壤的脱碱作用。因此本区土壤的脱盐不致引起土壤碱化。4、在自然发生过程中,本区域盐渍土的脱盐过程,一直是在潜水位较高的情况下进行的。在脱盐过程中,潜水位经常在临界水位以内,为本区自然脱盐过程中,最大特点;潜水动能和土壤的脱盐过程,存在着许多内在的联系。在一定地区内,一定盐渍程度、盐渍特性的土壤,则常有和其相适应的矿...

本文简要地说明了江苏省沿海地区盐渍土壤的自然发生过程及盐渍特性转化的规律,文中主要论点,可初步归纳如下:1、本区域的土壤,发育于盐渍性的冲积母质,土层中富含以氯化钠为主的可溶性盐类,并呈一定的“碱性”。土壤碱性表现在两方面:一方面是土壤胶体表面存在有较多的吸附性钠,另方面表现在本身具有较高的pH 值。2、在自然发生过程中,土壤盐渍性为地质过程遗留的影响;随受自然降水淋盐,河沟排水排盐及生物作用的影响,开始“脱盐、脱碱”和肥力积累过程,发育成为本区内现存的各种不同盐渍程度的土壤。3、随着土壤脱盐作用的进行,土壤盐渍的组成在变化;主要是可溶性盐阴离子中钠离子的含量淋失较速,最后降低了土壤溶液中Na~+/Ca~(++)比率。由于这种盐渍组成的改变,土壤胶体上吸收性Na~+也相应的降低,从而导致土壤的脱碱作用。因此本区土壤的脱盐不致引起土壤碱化。4、在自然发生过程中,本区域盐渍土的脱盐过程,一直是在潜水位较高的情况下进行的。在脱盐过程中,潜水位经常在临界水位以内,为本区自然脱盐过程中,最大特点;潜水动能和土壤的脱盐过程,存在着许多内在的联系。在一定地区内,一定盐渍程度、盐渍特性的土壤,则常有和其相适应的矿化潜水类型。在自然发生过程中,随土壤的脱盐和盐渍特性的转化,潜水似亦随之发生相应的淡化和化学性质的变化。二者转化趋势,大致相符。彼此间的关系,是互相依存、互相制约的,在不断运动的过程中,似先有土壤的脱盐,而生导向潜水的淡化;但就土壤脱盐的过程言,本身同时又是潜水淡化的结果。5、在土壤脱盐的过程中,土壤盐分的动能比较复杂,一方面是全区土壤不断地脱盐,另方面是在一定的条件下,又可产生局部地区土壤表层的盐渍化。前者为本区盐渍土壤自然发生过程的实质,后者为临时性现象。此种现象,最终亦必随同潜水的转向淡化而逐渐消除。

After soil survey of the whole region,it is found that the soils of the North China Great Plain consist of four great soil groups including drab soil,light meadow soil,glei swamp soil and saline soil.The term“calcareous alluvial soils” formerly used hardly interprets any mean of soil formation and productive cha- racteristics. The drab soils formerly named as“Shangtung brown soils”are generally located on the alluvial fan and the foot of mountains.Owing to the higher relief,excess drainage and deeper ground...

After soil survey of the whole region,it is found that the soils of the North China Great Plain consist of four great soil groups including drab soil,light meadow soil,glei swamp soil and saline soil.The term“calcareous alluvial soils” formerly used hardly interprets any mean of soil formation and productive cha- racteristics. The drab soils formerly named as“Shangtung brown soils”are generally located on the alluvial fan and the foot of mountains.Owing to the higher relief,excess drainage and deeper ground water(below 4—6 meters),saliniza- tion is not found.The drab soil is neutral to slightly alkaline in reaction. The chemical data show no evidence of chemical decomposition of clay,but the disintegration of soil particles-clay formation is quite obvious.Along the foot of Taihang range,the drab soils are covered with new calcareous material and bring out the process of recalcification shown by the presence of pseudo- mycelins in the Soil profiles. Light meadow soils are generally distributed in the alluvial plain with higher ground water table laying at 2—3 meters.Owing to the frequency of the fluc- tuation of the ground water in the soil profile,oxidation and reduction are alternately carried out and lots of rusts and mottlings are found in the soil profile of these soils.Under intensive cultivation,the surface soil of light meadow soil is usually loose and mellow and contains lower content of organic matter. The glei swamp soils are formed by the lakeside and in the depressed lowlands where ground water table is quite shallow and sometimes close up to the sur- face.In the depressed lands contacted with mountain foot,longer duration of water-lodging produces strongly gleyed swamp soil with higher content of humus. In the depressed portion of alluvial plain,the temporary water-lodging gives weakly gleyed swamp soil with low content of humus,whilst the strongly gleyed soils are found in the depressed land along seacoast. Salinization of soils is influenced by the ground water and relief.Saline soils are usually distributed in the lowland with higher ground water table and higher mineral content of the water.Irrigation without drainage system will rise ground water table and causes the process of secondary salinization. Saline soils of North China plain may be divided into two subtypes:(1) Saline soil of alluvial plain and(2)Saline soils along the seacoast.The former belongs to the chloride-sulfate saline soils in which the ground water table is about 1.5—2.0 meters and the mineral content of the ground water is about 1—3 grams/liter.In the coastal region,the chloride saline soils are usually found with high ground water table at 1.0—1.5 meter and also high mineral content more than 10 grams/liter.The transitional belt between these two soils above-mentioned is sulfate-chloride saline soils where the ground water table is around 1.5 meter and the mineral content of ground water is 5—10 grams/liter. These four genetic soil types are closely related each other and also alternate between themselves.It is very interesting to study the transitional types among these four soil groups. Between drab soils and light meadow soils,the transitional soil types as meadow drab soils and drab meadow soils are formed under different transitional circumstances.The meadow drab soil is distributed at the bottom of alluvial fan with higher ground water table(1.5—3 meters),while the drab meadow soil is formed on the old riverbed in the alluvial plain with comparatively uplifting relief where the ground water table becomes deeper(3—3.5 meters). Many transitional soil types are also developed between the light meadow soils and glei swamp soils.The worse water lodging condition enforces the meadow soil transfering to glei swamp soil,whilst promotion of water condi- tion by diking drainage cannel or local silting up of lowlands causes the trans- formation of glei swamp soil in to light meadow soil or even to the drab soil. Salinization of soil is always accompanied with the formation of light meadow soil.Rising the ground water table and increasing the mineral content of ground water will induce or enforce the process of sainization of soils.On the other side,desalinization of soils can be carried out when the ground water table becomes lower.When the seatide is shut by dikes and the drainage condition is improved,the saline soil in the coastal region will be transfered to the light meadow soils.

经过一年多的大规模调查,证实了华北平原的土壤都具有不同的类型和不等程度的发育,其中包括很多土类、亚类和变种,过去简称华北平原土壤为“石灰性冲积土”,是很难反映情况和说明问题的。华北平原的主要成土过程有褐土过程、浅色草甸土过程、沼泽过程和盐土过程。褐土多发育于山麓及冲积扇形地上,地势较高,排水良好,地下水埋藏较深,约在4—6米以下。在降水淋洗之下,可溶盐类皆被淋失,不发生盐演化现象,土壤只及于粘化作用,pH 值多属中性至微碱性。太行山麓的褐土因受石灰性沉积物的覆盖,发生次生碳酸盐化作用,土壤剖面中有假菌丝体存在。浅色草甸土多分布于冲积平原,其形成过程受地下水的影响极显著。地下水埋藏深度约2—3米,也可达4—5米。由于地下水升降频繁,氧化还原作用交替进行,土壤中呈现显明的锈纹斑,但无假菌丝体。土壤疏松多孔而有结构性,因土壤中有机质较少、土色浅淡而多受人为耕作的影响,故称耕种浅色草甸土。洼地及湖淀附近,地下水埋藏较浅或地表积水,土壤发生沼泽化过程。山麓交接洼地,积水时期长久,潜育作用及腐殖质积累均较显著。平原中洼地比较平坦,积水时间亦较短,腐殖质积累和潜育作用都较轻微。海滨洼地中,潜育作用较为剧烈,但有...

经过一年多的大规模调查,证实了华北平原的土壤都具有不同的类型和不等程度的发育,其中包括很多土类、亚类和变种,过去简称华北平原土壤为“石灰性冲积土”,是很难反映情况和说明问题的。华北平原的主要成土过程有褐土过程、浅色草甸土过程、沼泽过程和盐土过程。褐土多发育于山麓及冲积扇形地上,地势较高,排水良好,地下水埋藏较深,约在4—6米以下。在降水淋洗之下,可溶盐类皆被淋失,不发生盐演化现象,土壤只及于粘化作用,pH 值多属中性至微碱性。太行山麓的褐土因受石灰性沉积物的覆盖,发生次生碳酸盐化作用,土壤剖面中有假菌丝体存在。浅色草甸土多分布于冲积平原,其形成过程受地下水的影响极显著。地下水埋藏深度约2—3米,也可达4—5米。由于地下水升降频繁,氧化还原作用交替进行,土壤中呈现显明的锈纹斑,但无假菌丝体。土壤疏松多孔而有结构性,因土壤中有机质较少、土色浅淡而多受人为耕作的影响,故称耕种浅色草甸土。洼地及湖淀附近,地下水埋藏较浅或地表积水,土壤发生沼泽化过程。山麓交接洼地,积水时期长久,潜育作用及腐殖质积累均较显著。平原中洼地比较平坦,积水时间亦较短,腐殖质积累和潜育作用都较轻微。海滨洼地中,潜育作用较为剧烈,但有机质的积累则不一致,水浅处的有机质积累较多。因地形及地下水的情况不同,土壤盐渍程度各地不一。盐渍土多发生于山前交接洼地、碟形洼地边缘,以及槽状洼地和地上河流的两侧。有些灌区由于缺乏合理的灌排系统和灌溉制度,土壤发生了次生盐演化现象。华北平原盐渍土可分为内陆及海滨两种:内陆盐渍土多属氯化物硫酸盐土,地下水埋藏深度约1.5—2.0米,地下水矿化度约1—3克/升;海滨盐土区多属氧化物盐土,地下水埋藏深度约1.0—1.5米,地下水矿化度大于10克/升;过渡地带(即海滨盐土与内陆盐土的过渡地带)的盐渍土多属硫酸盐氯化物盐土,地下水埋藏深度约1.5米左右,地下水矿化度5—10克/升。华北平原中的四个主要成土过程是互相联系,而且有过渡阶段的。褐土和浅色草甸土的形成条件,主要在于排水情况和地下水位的不同。所以这两种土壤分布毗鄰而有互相过渡的发展情况。扇形地中下部,地面排水尚好而地下水埋藏较浅(1.5—3米),褐土区中可发育浅色草甸褐土。在泛盐平原中地势相对高起的黄河故道或靠近冲积扇地区,地下水埋藏较深(3.5—5米),可发育褐土化浅色草甸土。泛溘平原中的洼地积水愈久,沼浑化过程愈强,可由沼泽化浅色草甸土过渡至浅色草甸沼泽土或沼泽土。但经人工挖沟排水或洼地淤平以后,土壤可由沼泽土转向浅色草甸过程或褐土过程发展。浅色草甸土中如地下水埋藏浅而矿化度高,则土壤可向盐土方向发展。海滨盐土如不再受海潮影响和改善排水情况,则土壤也可由盐土向浅色草甸土发展。

Results of analysis of the dust storm data in Beijing area during the pariod of 1951-1980 are as follows.(1) Dust storms were most frequent (51.6%) in Spring;less frequent (30.5%)in Winter;and much less frequent (<10%)in Summer and Autumn.(2) About 2/3 of the Spring dust storm was caused by blowing sand with the visibility within a range of 1-10 km; about 1/4 caused by sand haze; only 1/12 was sand storm,its visibility is less than 1km.(3) 87% of the sand and dust in the Spring dust storms was originated locally,while...

Results of analysis of the dust storm data in Beijing area during the pariod of 1951-1980 are as follows.(1) Dust storms were most frequent (51.6%) in Spring;less frequent (30.5%)in Winter;and much less frequent (<10%)in Summer and Autumn.(2) About 2/3 of the Spring dust storm was caused by blowing sand with the visibility within a range of 1-10 km; about 1/4 caused by sand haze; only 1/12 was sand storm,its visibility is less than 1km.(3) 87% of the sand and dust in the Spring dust storms was originated locally,while 13% of that came from dry deserts and loess plateau north of Beijing.(4)The lowest wind speed that would cause a dust storm in Beijing is 4.7 m/s.Rain is effective to subdue a dust storm.(5) Prevalence of the dust storm was also closely related to tree and lawn planting.Before 1949,trees and lawns were rarely planted in Beijing,thus between 1951 and 1960 dust storms were most frequent,with an average of about :30 storms each Spring,about one storm per three days.After liberation,great efforts have been made to develop tree planting and growing lawns.By 1961,the area of lawn has been increased by more than four times and number of trees planted by more than 200 times.As a result,Spring dust storm in Beijing decreased greatly between 1961 and 1970 with an average of one storm per ten days.In the ten years after 1966,area of lawn was decreased by 11% and number of trees by 40%,thus from 1971 to 1980 dust storms have increased again in the last ten years with one storm a week as an average.If green area would be increased two times than as now is,Beijing would be almost freed from sufferiny of Spring dust storms.

本文分析了1951—1980年北京30年风沙资料,研究得出:(1)、北京风沙春季最多,占51.6%;冬季次之,占30.5%;夏秋最少,均不足10%。(2),北京春季风沙以能见度在1—10公里范围内的扬沙为主,约占2/3;浮尘占1/4多;能见度小于1公里的沙尘暴最少,仅占1/12。(3),北京春季风沙87%的沙尘是来源于本地,有13%来源于干旱沙漠地区和黄土高原。(4),引起北京春季风沙的风速需在4.7米/秒以上。降水能抑制风沙形成。(5),北京春季风沙与造林绿化密切有关。解放前,北京树木和绿地很少,因此1951—1960年期间风沙极为频繁,平均每年春季约30次,约每三天有一次风沙日。解放后,大力开展绿化造林,到1961年,绿地扩大了四倍多,树木数目增长了200多倍,所以1961—1970年期间,春季风沙大幅度减少,平均每10天有一次风沙日。1966年以后10年,绿地减少了11%,树木减少了40%,因此,1971—1980年的最近10年期间,春季风沙又有回升趋势,平均每周有一次风沙天气。北京的绿地面积再扩大两倍,即可基本上制止风沙为害。

 
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