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     The method of IF digitalcorrelative processing that is the basic of digitize of receiver’s channel.
     本文讨论的中频数字相关处理方法为将来接收机接收通道的数字化打下了坚实地基础。
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     Chuan Duan Kang Cheng have given Jia the most direct hint, it is " chase world-wide advanced trend, riverbed build solidly on the land of this nation ".
     川端康成则给了贾平凹最直接的启示,就是“追逐全世界的先进的趋向而浪花飞扬,河床却坚实地建凿在本民族的土地上”。
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     it improves the level of CITES implementation, maintains the national status, and furthermore enhances the international status of China in the affairs of CITES;
     提高了我国的履约水平,更进一步维护了国家形象,更坚实地奠定了我国在公约事务中的国际地位;
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     The purpose of the article is to reflect the current situation of the Chinese junior football, especially the problems and weakness existed in pass and receive.
     撰写本文的目的在于反映我国少年足球现状,特别是在传接球等方面存在的问题和不足。 作为中国体育改革突破口的足球运动,应重点着力于少年训练上,尤其要坚实地打好传接球技术的基础。
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     It concludes that Higher Education Funding Concils' strategic planning and management of the programme,coupled with the enthusiastic participation of the Library and Information sector has not only ensured the success of the programme,but also put the UK LIS sector in a strong foothold for harnessing the digital resources in the future.
     最后指出 ,政府部门 ( Higher Education Funding Councile)对该项目的引导和管理是它成功的保障 ,高校图书馆的积极参与是它成功的关键 ; 两者的结合不仅造就了elib在过去五年的累累硕果 ,也将英国高校图书馆坚实地置于电子图书馆环境未来开发与利用的前沿。
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     The Split Ground Plane
     平面的分割
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     A Brief Analysis on Virtual Ground
     浅析虚
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     The noumenon of philosophy can supply a comparatively solid foundation for the philosophic theory and sense of realistic value.
     能量本体能较好为哲学理论和现实价值观提供坚实基础
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     This system provides a stable foundation to deeply understanding and further studying of nano-structural single electron devices.
     为深入理解和更进一步研究纳米结构单电子器件特性奠定了坚实的基础。
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     2.a solid elementary technical knowledge;
     2.坚实的技术基础知识;
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  flat ground
Quadrupeds are designed to move efficiently and rapidly on flat ground.
      
A planar shock of constant intensity propagated in pure air over flat ground and diffracted into a square cavity filled with a dusty quiescent suspension.
      
The first period occurs from the age of 3 to 6 years, when the HSSS is adopted only while walking on the flat ground.
      
Subjects were asked to walk at their natural speed on an uniformly gray, flat ground.
      
This comprised a proximal shield, where flow stacking and inflation caused piling up of lava on the relatively flat ground of the vent zone, that fed a medial-distal lava flow field.
      
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In the manufacture of stainless steel of the high chromium type, axial

在高铬不锈钢的生产中,影响质量最严重的是钢锭中的轴心裂纹和钢材中的髪纹。本文的研究结果指出,这两种缺陷属于同一来源,没有轴心裂纹的钢锭在锻成钢材后也没有髪纹。钢锭中轴心裂纹是在凝固过程中形成的,因而冷凝条件对它有影响。利用耐火材料做锭模可以得到内部坚实的钢锭,减小锭模模壁厚度,增大钢锭圆锥度或降低浇铸温度等只能减轻而不能完全消除裂纹。熔炼过程中的脱氧方法对钢中夹杂物的性质和形状分布有影响。改善脱氧方法并采用薄模浇铸,可以大大地减少轴心裂纹和髪纹,从而提高钢的收得率。我们认为夹杂物的性质、多寡及其形状分布可能对钢液的流动性和表面张力有影响;改善钢液的流动性或减小其表面张力可以促进钢液的充填性能,从而弥补凝固过程中由于冷凝收缩而产生的缺陷。在一定压力以下的真空中熔化和浇铸可以得到内部良好的钢锭。通过真空熔铸所得到的钢锭,其柱状晶区大小缩小,而柱状晶的缩小对避免钢锭中轴心裂纹有利。得到这种效果的原因可能是多方面的,真空有去气作用,在真空中钢锭的凝固散热与在一般情况下有所不同,真空作用使钢液的性质发生变化等等。虽然,上述几方面的理论基础还有待于进一步研究,但从目前实际效果来说,真空熔化和浇铸应该认为是提高不锈钢质量的...

在高铬不锈钢的生产中,影响质量最严重的是钢锭中的轴心裂纹和钢材中的髪纹。本文的研究结果指出,这两种缺陷属于同一来源,没有轴心裂纹的钢锭在锻成钢材后也没有髪纹。钢锭中轴心裂纹是在凝固过程中形成的,因而冷凝条件对它有影响。利用耐火材料做锭模可以得到内部坚实的钢锭,减小锭模模壁厚度,增大钢锭圆锥度或降低浇铸温度等只能减轻而不能完全消除裂纹。熔炼过程中的脱氧方法对钢中夹杂物的性质和形状分布有影响。改善脱氧方法并采用薄模浇铸,可以大大地减少轴心裂纹和髪纹,从而提高钢的收得率。我们认为夹杂物的性质、多寡及其形状分布可能对钢液的流动性和表面张力有影响;改善钢液的流动性或减小其表面张力可以促进钢液的充填性能,从而弥补凝固过程中由于冷凝收缩而产生的缺陷。在一定压力以下的真空中熔化和浇铸可以得到内部良好的钢锭。通过真空熔铸所得到的钢锭,其柱状晶区大小缩小,而柱状晶的缩小对避免钢锭中轴心裂纹有利。得到这种效果的原因可能是多方面的,真空有去气作用,在真空中钢锭的凝固散热与在一般情况下有所不同,真空作用使钢液的性质发生变化等等。虽然,上述几方面的理论基础还有待于进一步研究,但从目前实际效果来说,真空熔化和浇铸应该认为是提高不锈钢质量的一个重要发展方向。

The mode of genesis of plate-like structure of soils under different conditions may be different.Broad field observation reveals that soils favoring plate-like structure formation generally have an easy access to an abundant but intermittant supply of water,low content of raw organic matter as well as of humus,indefiniteness but not being too sandy in tex- ture,and weakness in structural stability. The present paper reports the evidences gathered from the field obser, vation and laboratory experiments showing...

The mode of genesis of plate-like structure of soils under different conditions may be different.Broad field observation reveals that soils favoring plate-like structure formation generally have an easy access to an abundant but intermittant supply of water,low content of raw organic matter as well as of humus,indefiniteness but not being too sandy in tex- ture,and weakness in structural stability. The present paper reports the evidences gathered from the field obser, vation and laboratory experiments showing that plate-like structure can be developed through the effect of alternate wetting and drying processes. Laboratory experiments have shown that the degree of perfection of the development of plate-like structure as evidenced both from the horizontal natural crackings and from the volume of swelling of the soil body in- creases with increase in the number of cycles of alternate wetting and drying.(Plate Ⅰ.)In order to assure the effectiveness of the processes, both drying and wetting should be carried out as thorough as possible. A mechanism explaining the formation of plate-like structure is pro- posed.According to the suggested mechanism,swelling of the soil as a result of wetting affords the necessary conditions for the formations of plate-like structure,while the actual development of structural plates is accomplished through the drying processes.The greater the rate of drying, the better the conditions for the development of plate-like structure. The horizontal axis of the structural plates as demonstrated by the laboratory experiments runs parallelly to the contour of the drying sur- face.The development of plate-Iike structure is greatly hindered by exerting pressure on the surface upon wetting.Microscopic examination of the structural units reveals that no definite orientation of the individual soil particles are noticeable and the horizontal crackings separating layers of structural plates were seen to be discontinuous and of non-uniform in dimension. The following is a brief account of the mechanism of plate-like struc- ture formation through the effect of alternate wetting and drying processes: The evaporation of water from the saturated soil leads first of all to the formation of a thin crust on the very surface of evaporation.This leaves,beneath the crust a series of cracking spaces parallel to the surface due to the shrinkage of the soil while drying.Further drying compels water to evaporate from below the surface into these cracking spaces. Thus a second layer of laminated dry soil may form below the first layer of the surface crust.As evaporation continues on,the process repeats itself with decreasing intensities because part of water will be lost inevitably through the few connections that may exist between adjacent layers of structural plates.The layers developed below the surface crust are of course somewhat different in nature because the conditions of drying pre- vailing here are different.Thus the drying out of the soil below the surface usually proceeds in a much more restricted rate——a fact,that may explain the presence of structural plates in the underlying layers which are absent in the surface crust.On rewetting the soil,the particles or aggregates in cracking spaces then may serve as wedges to push layers of structural plates further apart as a result of swelling. This theory may afford explanations to the facts that in the laboratory experiments better development of plate-like structure is always accom- panied by the greater extent of swelling of the soil and the latter in turn can be augmented by increasing the number of cycles of alternate wetting and drying processes.The proposed mechanism also suggests that not only should both wetting and drying be thorough enough so as to assure the formation of as many horizontal crackings and structural plates as possible, but also the rate of drying should be great enough to check as much as possible the lose of water through capillary action.It is also evident ac- cording to the supposition given above that any factor inhibiting the swelling of the soil,(such as pressure exerted upon the surface)will make it impossible to develope plate-like structure through alternate wetting and drying processes.As further evidences to support the suggested mechanism, it is worth while to point out the facts that plate-like structure usually occurs near the soil surface and that structural plates run always parallelly to the surface of evaporation. The soils that are most liable to the formation of plate-like structure according to this mechanism are those medium in texture,and low in organic matter and colloid contents. The plate-like structure thus developed is believed to be temporary in the sense that it will be easily disintegrated by either mechanical forces as practiced in the usual cultivation processes or by prolonged flooding followed by imcomplete drying.

一、片状结构形成的原因很多,但在地表常见的一种可能不是沉积、水冻或压力等原因造成,而系常经干湿变异的结果。二、在干湿变异条件下产生的片状结构分布地区甚广,可能其形成与土壤种类无直接关系。凡地面少植被、原缺乏结构的土壤,如不受人为翻动,露于地面一定时期后,多半会产生不同明显程度的片状结构。三、土壤在干湿变异条件下产生片状结构可能为一简单的机械作用。即土块湿润时膨胀,体积变大,再经干燥,体积不能恢复,留下横向裂隙于土中,遂成片状结构。在所研究的各因子中,干湿变异次数多、干湿变异程度大以及干湿变异中脱水速率快均能促使土块膨胀,所以能使片状结构形成更为明显。如对土块施以压力,不予膨胀,虽土块具有各方面生成片状结构的良好条件,仍不能形成片状结构。对田间具片状结构土块的试验中,说明它可能与室内人工片状结构有相同的成因,一方面也说明了这种结构的不稳定,易于破坏,但如条件适合,形成也不困难。四、此种片状结构因系土块干燥时产生横向裂隙所形成,所以结构横轴生成的方向主要决定于水分的蒸发面而经常与之平行。这种关系在野外具体表现为结构横轴常与地表平行,在室内的几项试验结果与此也相符合。此外结构横轴形成的方向是否与土块湿润时水分进行的...

一、片状结构形成的原因很多,但在地表常见的一种可能不是沉积、水冻或压力等原因造成,而系常经干湿变异的结果。二、在干湿变异条件下产生的片状结构分布地区甚广,可能其形成与土壤种类无直接关系。凡地面少植被、原缺乏结构的土壤,如不受人为翻动,露于地面一定时期后,多半会产生不同明显程度的片状结构。三、土壤在干湿变异条件下产生片状结构可能为一简单的机械作用。即土块湿润时膨胀,体积变大,再经干燥,体积不能恢复,留下横向裂隙于土中,遂成片状结构。在所研究的各因子中,干湿变异次数多、干湿变异程度大以及干湿变异中脱水速率快均能促使土块膨胀,所以能使片状结构形成更为明显。如对土块施以压力,不予膨胀,虽土块具有各方面生成片状结构的良好条件,仍不能形成片状结构。对田间具片状结构土块的试验中,说明它可能与室内人工片状结构有相同的成因,一方面也说明了这种结构的不稳定,易于破坏,但如条件适合,形成也不困难。四、此种片状结构因系土块干燥时产生横向裂隙所形成,所以结构横轴生成的方向主要决定于水分的蒸发面而经常与之平行。这种关系在野外具体表现为结构横轴常与地表平行,在室内的几项试验结果与此也相符合。此外结构横轴形成的方向是否与土块湿润时水分进行的方向有关,还待进一步的研究解决。五、通常所见的片状结构每每愈至土壤深处愈不明显,推测其原因可能是下层土壤具有以下特性:①干湿变异程度小,②干燥时脱水速率慢,③受到上部土层的压力,湿时不易膨胀,是几方面生成上的不利条件综合影响下的结果。六、片状结构容易在冲积母质的土壤上、滨海盐土地带以及碱土地区等处表土上发现,这可能与:地势平坦,水分易于停积;植被稀疏;土壤缺乏结构;或下层坚实,水分常积于上部,使表土能充分湿润等因子有关。在灰化土及生草灰化土地区,A_2 层中的片状结构结构是否具有上述同样的成因,还不能肯定,但有些条件很值得注意,如 A_2层缺乏有机质,没有良好结构;下面有一坚实的B 层,水分易在此停积;一般 A_2层距地表不远;同时在质地方面含粉砂较多,说明其片状结构也可能是干湿变异的结果。七、质地在片状结构的形成上也可能是影响较大的因子之一,工作中初步的印象是含粉砂或细砂较多的土壤易于形成,土块内粘结力过强时不易形成,但迄无充分证据,还有待进一步的研究。

Hased uPon flome test investigating the Physical phenomena of bed-load movement and forces acting upon particles on channel bed before their starting of movement, the following conclusions are reached:1. In general cases, movements of bed-load anal sand waves are closely accompanied with each other. Ivestigations on movements of bed-load, without taking into account the movements of sand waves, as done by Einstein, are unjustifiable. The main drawback of the Point of view of Einstein lies in the fact that, the...

Hased uPon flome test investigating the Physical phenomena of bed-load movement and forces acting upon particles on channel bed before their starting of movement, the following conclusions are reached:1. In general cases, movements of bed-load anal sand waves are closely accompanied with each other. Ivestigations on movements of bed-load, without taking into account the movements of sand waves, as done by Einstein, are unjustifiable. The main drawback of the Point of view of Einstein lies in the fact that, the periodical moving-and-standing process of bed-load particles is entirely over-looked while the statistical moving-and-standing Process of the same is over-emphasized.2. As well proved by the flume tests made by tbe authors, the tractive force of the water flow Plays at least the same, if not the more imPortant, part in making the ded-load particle to start its movement as the lifting force of the water flow. But, in the theory of bed-load movement of Einstein, the action of the tractive force of the water flow is not taken into-consideration at all.However, it is Pointed out in this article that Einstein was the first to introduce the statistical method into the investigation of bed-load move ment; and, thus, showed a,different way to consider the Problem.

本文在重點評述爱因斯坦关于推移质运动的理論的同时,結合着介紹了作者进行推移貭試驗的部分成果——推移质运动的物理過程和促使推移貭投入运动的力。本文指出:在冲积平原河流的一股情况下,推移质运动以沙波运动——特別是顺行沙波运动的主要形式。沙波的連续性运动是由組成沙波的沙粒(即推移质)的間歇性运动构成的。沙粒間歇性运动分为两种:必然性的間歇性运动与机迂性的間歇性运动。前者佔主要位置?俪赏茤刎犕度朐硕乃髯饔昧ξ埔屏吧暇倭?二者均不可忽略。在推移质投入运动以后,前者的作用可能更加重要。爱因斯坦脫离沙波运动建立关于描栘貭运动的理論,有见树不見林的傾向。在分析沙粒运动過程时,无视佔主要位置的必然性的間歇运动,片面强調只佔次要位置的机迂性的間歇运动。在考查促使推栘貭投入這动的水流作用力的时候,无视推栘力的作用,片面强调上举力的作用。这就不能使人对爱因斯坦关于推移质运动的理論基础的坚實性持保留态度。爱因斯坦首先引用統計理論于推移貭运动,可以认为是一个貢献。

 
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