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砾地
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  “砾地”译为未确定词的双语例句
     (3) There are 0.7% barren lands and 7.8% dry lands with >25° gradient in Wuxi county,which means human activities have shaped large area of cropland;
     (3)巫溪县有占全县面积0.7%的裸岩石砾地及7.8%的坡度大于25°的旱地,表明巫溪县人为活动形成了大面积的坡耕地;
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     The types of soil and water loss in Wuxi county mainly involve surface erosion and gully erosion.
     (2)巫溪县破碎度最大的为灌木林地,除居民点、裸岩石砾地、平原区水田与其它林地外,其余的破碎指数均高于1.7,表明这部分景观受人类干扰强烈,是主要的生态退化景观类型。
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     The result of restoration is satisfying with S = 0.661.The results suggested that silk reed is an excellent herbage to recover and reestablish vegetation which has been destroyed for natural or factitious reasons.
     研究结果表明,类芦具有一系列优良的植物学性状,抗逆性强、生态幅广,是深圳及其同类地区因修建高速公路等原因造成植被严重破坏、土壤严重侵蚀的坡面及裸岩石砾地植被恢复与重建的优良草种。
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     The relevant synthetical measures on land-use are proposed.
     提出了耕地保持动态平衡,园林牧地适度增长,重点发展交通和城镇,改造利用裸岩石砾地的土地利用结构调整方案,并提出相应的土地开发利用综合措施。
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     The research indicated that in these 8 years,the shift tendencyofbare rock gravelland,sand and the field is obvious,Their shift rates respectively achieved 32.28%,20.16% and 14.98%. The bare rock gravel land mainly shifted tothe industrial andmineral land,residential area uses,water conservation,and transportation use. Pastures land and weed changedto farminguseand sand land,the farming land shifted to the field and the saline and alkali land primarily.
     研究表明:在这8年的时间里,库尔勒市裸岩石砾地、沙地和园地的转移趋势明显,三者的转移率分别达到32.28%、20.16%和14.98%,主要以裸岩石砾地内部向工矿用地、居民点用地、水利设施用地、交通用地和沙地转移,牧草地和荒草地内部向耕地和沙地转移,耕地内部向园地和盐碱地转移等类型为主。
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     The Split Ground Plane
     平面的分割
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     A Brief Analysis on Virtual Ground
     浅析虚
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     APPLICATION OF GRAVEL-FILLED HOLE STRUCTURE IN THE FIELD TEST OF IN-SITU LEACH URANIUM
     填式钻孔结构在浸采铀现场试验中的应用
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     the area of desert and exposed rock land was invariant on the whole.
     戈壁、沼泽面积减少幅度相对较小,沙、裸岩石的面积基本不变;
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     AN EXPLORATION INTO THE LUSHAN BOULDER CLAY
     庐山泥的探讨
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  gravel ground
Each set of curbs was attached to the gravel ground surface with steel rods driven through holes in the curbs into the gravel.
      


A.The Soils Since the goological formation of this mountainous area is quite uniform,a vertical distribution of soils is obviously observed. At the top of the mountain with an elevation of 8,500 feet,the podzolic soil is found. The process of podzolization is clearly shown by the translocation of clays,organic matter, and active aluminum from an upper to lower layer.The gray brown podzolic soil is distributed in areas ranging from 7,000 to 8,500 feet in elevation.It is developed under forest and has a...

A.The Soils Since the goological formation of this mountainous area is quite uniform,a vertical distribution of soils is obviously observed. At the top of the mountain with an elevation of 8,500 feet,the podzolic soil is found. The process of podzolization is clearly shown by the translocation of clays,organic matter, and active aluminum from an upper to lower layer.The gray brown podzolic soil is distributed in areas ranging from 7,000 to 8,500 feet in elevation.It is developed under forest and has a surface covering of leaf litter and a surface soil with high content of organic matter.In places at an elevatin from 3,900 to 7,000 feet the yellow podzolic soil is dominant.At an elevation below 3,000 foot the red podzolic soil and the sketetal soil are fonnd. The analytical data of the soils of this area may be summarized as follows: 1.pH values of the soils:In the whole area,since the parent rock (gneiss) is poor in basic constituents,soils are all acid in reaction.The pH of the different horizons of the soils ranges from 4.0 to 5.5.The A_0 and A_1 horizons are usually less acid than B horizon,the A and B horizons are much more acid than the parent rock.This shows the leaching process of the soils under such a humid atmosphere. 2.Organic Matter of the soils:The organic matter content of the soils in this area is greatlg influenced by the kind of the vegetation cover.At an elevation of 8,500 feet, the soil developed under forest has 38.92% of organic matter in the A_1,while that under grass has only 11.08% of organic matter in the corresponding horizon.However as the vegetation cover is constant,the dopth of the A_1 and its organic matter content are evidently affected by the elevation.At an elevation of 3,000 feet,the A_1 horizon of the red podzolic soil is only 1 cm.in depth,and it has 3.37% of organic matter.At an elevation of 8,500 feet,howerver,the A_1 horizon of the podzolic soil is 7 cm.in depth, and it has 11.08% of organic matter.In addition,deposition of organic matter in the B horizon is clearly found in the podzolic soil,but it has not been seen in soils found at lower elevation. 3.Active aluminum of the soils:All the soils in this area are high in active aluminum. They contain from 20 to 16 p.p.m.of active aluminum.The content of active aluminum in the different horizons of the same profile has a very close relationship with the pH values of the corresponding horizon.The less acid the reaction the smaller is the amount of acitve aluminum.The active aluminum of the soil is usually higher in amount than that of the parent rock from which the soil is derived. 4.Available calcium magnesium,and potassium of the soils:All the soils are general- ly low in available calcium,magnesium,and potassium.The comparatively high content of these elements in the A horizon is derived from the leaves of the vegetation which are grown on that soil. 5.Available phosphorus of the soils:All the soils of this area are low in available phosphorus. 6.Available nitrate:All soils in this area are very low in nitrate. B.The Vegetation 1.The plants growing on soils of this area are most calcifuge species which are acid- loving (Vaughan and Wishe,1937).As far as the chemical analysis of the soil is concer- ned,those species may be assumed as not only acid-loving,buy also active aluminum- loving (Hutchinson,1943). 2.The distribution of the calcifuge plants In this area is apparently affected by the local climate in terms of elevation.Some of them (temperate plants) are confined to high elevation,others(tropical plants) being limited to low elevation,Two groups of the plants may be given as follows.Many of them are of the same species as those found in southwestern China (Hou,1944). (a) Plants mainly ocurring in areas at elevations from 7,000 to 8,500 foot (temperate plants): Pteridophyta: Destaedtia Scabra (Wall.) Moore Diranopteris linearis Under. Hicrioptris glauea Under. Hymenophyllum crispatum Wall. Hymenophyllum exsertum Wall. Lidsaya cultrata Sw. Lycopodium clavatum L. Plagiogyria pyphylla (Kunze) Mett. Pteridium aquilinum Wightianum Trym Pteris aspericaulis Wall. Flowering Plants: Castanopsis tribuloides A.DC. Lindera pulcherrima Bth. Osbeckia crinata Bth. Rhododendron arboreum Sm. Rhododendron grande Wight Pieris formosana D.Don Vaccinium refersceda HK. Vaccinium serrasum Wight (b) Plants mainly ocurring in areas at elevation from 1,000 to 3,000 feet (tropical plants): Pteridophyta: Adiantum philippense L. Blechnum orientale L. Aglaoorpha coronaus Copel Lycopodium cernum L. Nephrolepsis cordifolia Presl Tectaria spp. Polypodium ucidum Roxb. Flowering plants: Oxyspora paniculate DC. Themeda arundinacea Ridl.

1945年10月中旬,作者留印三月另一周,曾作三次野外调查,计包括印缅边区、恒河平原及喜马拉雅山东南麓等三区,茲先将大吉岭区调查结果,草成此文。调查区域大吉岭位于喜马拉雅山东南麓,在我国西藏边境,全区是山地,海拔自1000到9000尺不等,主为酸性的片麻岩地层,在拔海6500尺地点,年平均气温为56.3℉.,年雨量为122寸。土壤灰壤——灰棕壤组合:在拔海8500尺左右的山顶,灰壤见于草地上,而灰棕壤则发育在森林之下。灰棕壤——灰化黄壤组合:在拔海7000—8000尺地带,森林下仍是灰棕壤,而草地上则为灰化黄壤。灰化黄壤——粗骨土组合:在拔海1000—3000尺地带,片麻岩生成灰化红壤,酸性砂岩生成砾质土。全区土壤特征可归纳如下: (1)土壤 pH 值:全区因土壤母质为酸性片麻岩,各类土壤剖面亦为酸性反应;pH 值约自4.0至5.5。A_1层之 pH 值恒较 B 层为大,而土壤剖面内之 A 层及 B 层均较母岩之酸度为高。 (2)土壤有机质:从土壤有机质分析结果观之,显示植物种类对于土壤有机质之含量高低,有密切的关系,在拔海8500尺之地带,发育于森林下的灰棕壤,表土含有机质38.92%,而同处草类和蕨类植物...

1945年10月中旬,作者留印三月另一周,曾作三次野外调查,计包括印缅边区、恒河平原及喜马拉雅山东南麓等三区,茲先将大吉岭区调查结果,草成此文。调查区域大吉岭位于喜马拉雅山东南麓,在我国西藏边境,全区是山地,海拔自1000到9000尺不等,主为酸性的片麻岩地层,在拔海6500尺地点,年平均气温为56.3℉.,年雨量为122寸。土壤灰壤——灰棕壤组合:在拔海8500尺左右的山顶,灰壤见于草地上,而灰棕壤则发育在森林之下。灰棕壤——灰化黄壤组合:在拔海7000—8000尺地带,森林下仍是灰棕壤,而草地上则为灰化黄壤。灰化黄壤——粗骨土组合:在拔海1000—3000尺地带,片麻岩生成灰化红壤,酸性砂岩生成砾质土。全区土壤特征可归纳如下: (1)土壤 pH 值:全区因土壤母质为酸性片麻岩,各类土壤剖面亦为酸性反应;pH 值约自4.0至5.5。A_1层之 pH 值恒较 B 层为大,而土壤剖面内之 A 层及 B 层均较母岩之酸度为高。 (2)土壤有机质:从土壤有机质分析结果观之,显示植物种类对于土壤有机质之含量高低,有密切的关系,在拔海8500尺之地带,发育于森林下的灰棕壤,表土含有机质38.92%,而同处草类和蕨类植物发育下的灰壤的表土,仅含有机质11.08%,但在相同的植物环境下,拔海高度或局部气候,也是支配土壤有机质含量的重要因素,例如在拔海3000尺地带,长有草类的灰化红壤,仅有极薄之有机质层,该层有机质含量为3.37%,而在拔海8500尺地带,长有草类的灰壤,则有较厚层有机质,其含量为11.08%。 (3)可溶性铝质:全区土壤含有高量可溶性铝,大约自20至160 p.p.m.,其含量与 pH 值高低相关,土壤 pH 值愈酸,可溶性铝含量就愈高。 (4)可溶性钙镁及钾质:全区土壤之可溶性钙,镁及钾等之含量均较低,但就同一土壤剖面而言,富于有机质的 A。或 A_1层的钙镁和钾质,常较 B 层为高,此点显示此等成份是来自植物遗体,亦即指示土壤中有机质与肥力之关系。 (5)全区土壤有效磷含量均甚低。 (6)全区土壤硝酸态氮之含量均极低,并有下淋现象。植物本文所论植物,仅以作者所采集而经各专家鉴定为限,其中以蕨类植物为主。本区的土壤都是酸性反应,所见的植物是以嫌钙性者为主,这些嫌钙性植物与拔海高度的关系很显著,兹将常见的植物种类,叙述如下: (一)主分布于拔海7000—8500尺地带的植物: 蕨类植物 Dennstaedtia scabra(Wall.)Moore Dicranopteris linearis Under. Hicriopteris glauca Under. Hymenophyllum crispatum Wall. Hymenophyllum exsertum Wall. Lindsaya cultrata Sw. Lycopodium clavatum L. Plagiogyria pycniphylla(Kunze)Mett. Pteridium aquilinum Wightianum Trym. Pteris aspericaulis Wall.种子植物 Castanopsis tribuloides A.DC. Lindera pulcherrima Bth. Osbeckia crinata Bth. Rhododendron arboreum Sm. Rhododendron grande Wight Pieris formosana D.Don Vaccinium referesceda HK. Vaccinium Serrasm Wight(二)主分布于1000—3000尺地带的植物: 蕨类植物Adiantum philippense L.Blechnum orientale L.Aglaomorpha coron(?)us copelLycopodium cernuum L.Nephrolepsis cordifolia PresslTectaria spp.Polypodium lucidum Roxb.种子植物Oxysoira paniculata DC.Themedra arundinacea Ridl.

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1.苏联近年来沥青混凝土路面的大量破坏,不可能全都归罪于现行的柔性路面设计理论的不完善。 2.路面大量破坏的主要原因总结有如下列: a.设计者机械地应用设计理论,没有充分地考虑当地的自然条件及筑路材料的性质,特别是那些颗粒组成极不一律的砾料方面; 6.设计者常企图尽可能降低修筑路面的费用,而昧然采用一些计算参数的最大值,如土与地方筑路材料(像性质不一致的砾料)的形变模量; B.某些计算参数值过高,例如在苏联道路科学研究院拟定的“柔性路面设计须知”中,关于砾料的形变模量,即未曾考虑砾料中小于0.5公厘的细土粒的含量; r.对许用于修建沥青混凝土路面基层的那些材料的形变模量,未曾提出明确的要求;关于路面结构问题,在上述的“须知”中,亦完全未加反映,而这一方面在应用当地的、大部分性质都不一致的筑路材料中,却有极重要的意义; 3.调查许多有高级路面的破坏路段,证实许多筑路单位所使用的地方材料的品质,并未符合要求。他们使用了污染的砾料,其中小于2公厘的颗粒含量大于25%,小于0.074公厘的大于10%,而这些都超过了允许的限度。此外,应用地方材料修建路面基层,在材料的一致性和密实度方面,亦均不符合要求; 4.国立全苏道...

1.苏联近年来沥青混凝土路面的大量破坏,不可能全都归罪于现行的柔性路面设计理论的不完善。 2.路面大量破坏的主要原因总结有如下列: a.设计者机械地应用设计理论,没有充分地考虑当地的自然条件及筑路材料的性质,特别是那些颗粒组成极不一律的砾料方面; 6.设计者常企图尽可能降低修筑路面的费用,而昧然采用一些计算参数的最大值,如土与地方筑路材料(像性质不一致的砾料)的形变模量; B.某些计算参数值过高,例如在苏联道路科学研究院拟定的“柔性路面设计须知”中,关于砾料的形变模量,即未曾考虑砾料中小于0.5公厘的细土粒的含量; r.对许用于修建沥青混凝土路面基层的那些材料的形变模量,未曾提出明确的要求;关于路面结构问题,在上述的“须知”中,亦完全未加反映,而这一方面在应用当地的、大部分性质都不一致的筑路材料中,却有极重要的意义; 3.调查许多有高级路面的破坏路段,证实许多筑路单位所使用的地方材料的品质,并未符合要求。他们使用了污染的砾料,其中小于2公厘的颗粒含量大于25%,小于0.074公厘的大于10%,而这些都超过了允许的限度。此外,应用地方材料修建路面基层,在材料的一致性和密实度方面,亦均不符合要求; 4.国立全苏道路科学研究院在1956年修正的“须知”中,已将上述几项缺点加以消除。在此新“须知”中,并附载有设计与施工单位直接测定土与筑路材料形变模量的方法指示,这样,也就可能充实足够的、能说明土与筑路材料在各种不同自然情况中的强度的实际资料; 5.在新“须知”中并指出了应以什么方向来修正柔性路面设计理论,尤其是在确定行车震动对于路面、特别是土的强度的影响方面。此外,对于在天然含水量超过90%(对塑性下限而言)的过湿土壤上设计路面,亦需要作出一更新的完善的计算理论。按照行车的重现率(特别是重型车辆)的安全系数值,以及参照路面厚度的临界挠度等等亦均极需加以确定。在这一方面,理论的研究必须分别结合各种不同自然条件中所发生现象本身的物理实质而进行。

The study of organic reef has important significance in the exploration of oil and gas fields. Huangnitang organic reef was found by us in Huangnitang Commune of Lichuan, Hubei in 1977. Its horizon belongs to the First Submember of the Second member, Upper permian Changxing Formation. The reef appears at the flanks and northeast plunging end of Huangnitang Anticline, which spreads from northeast to southwest. It is 15 km in visible length, 45 km in breadth and 134.3 m thick. The Limestones of the reef are pure...

The study of organic reef has important significance in the exploration of oil and gas fields. Huangnitang organic reef was found by us in Huangnitang Commune of Lichuan, Hubei in 1977. Its horizon belongs to the First Submember of the Second member, Upper permian Changxing Formation. The reef appears at the flanks and northeast plunging end of Huangnitang Anticline, which spreads from northeast to southwest. It is 15 km in visible length, 45 km in breadth and 134.3 m thick. The Limestones of the reef are pure in quality, light in colour, not uniform in texture and structure, and are obviously paleogeomorphological high in topography. Besides this, it is principally characterized by being rich in reef——building organisms in situ growth (central reef area). The principal reef—building organisms are sponges, bryozoas, corals, stromatoporas and algae and so on. Among them, the sponges and algae take advantageous position in quantity.The reef—core and fore—reef can be seen camparatively completely.According to the wave—resistant ways which are shown by the texture of the rocks, the rocks of the reef—core subfacies are divided into bafflestone, bound—framestone, and boundstone. This district is abundant in the bafflestone with baffletexture. The so—called baffletexture is that the micritic matrix grew everywhere between the sponges and the other reef—building organisms. It shows that the deposites resisted the wave through the reef—biulding organisms baffling the micritic matrix. The bound—framestone with bound—frametexture is the most mature rock of reef—core in evolution. The frameworks or its miniature models are composed of the finger and massive reef—building organisms They formed unshakable skeletons through the binding—action of the coated bluegreen algae. and the interskeletons are filled with sparry calcites. The boundstones provide bound—frameworks which are composed of coated bluegreen forms and some bound organisms, and the interframeworks are also filled with sparry calcites.The forereef subfacies are composed of calcirudites and bioclastic limestones.According to the microfacies festure in perpendicular sections of Huangnitang organic reef, the development history of the reef growth may be divided into 4 stages: primary, principal, inconsecutive and decadent.Solution porosites and intercrystal porosites are the principal pore space of the reservoir. Recently, some gas beds have already been found by drilling in western Hubei. It proves that the prospect of the reefal gas field is quite bright.

生物礁的研究对油气田的勘探具有重要意义。黄泥塘生物礁是我们1977年在鄂西利川县黄泥塘公社一带实测二迭系剖面时发现的。其层位属上二迭统长兴组第二段第一亚段(P_1C_1~2)。出露于黄泥塘背斜两翼和北东倾没端,呈北东——南西向展布。已见长度15公里,宽4.5公里,最大厚度134.3米。礁相段岩石除具有质纯、色浅、结构构造不均匀以及在产状上呈明显的古地貌凸起等特点外,富含原地生长的造礁生物(指礁核)是其主要特征。主要的造礁生物有海绵、苔藓虫、珊瑚、层孔虫和藻类等。其中海绵和包壳状兰绿藻在数量上是最重要的。黄泥塘生物礁的礁核和礁前出露较完整。礁核亚相岩石根据其结构特征所反映的抗波方式,可分为障积岩、粘结~骨架岩和粘结岩三种。障积岩是本区出露最多的一种礁核亚相岩石,具障积式结构特征,亦即在原地生长的海绵等造礁生物之间,广泛发育灰泥杂基,反映了沉积物是通过造礁生物对灰泥杂基的障碍作用而抗波的。粘结~骨架岩是发育最成熟的礁核岩石,具有粘结~骨架式结构特征,亦即指状、块状造礁生物组成骨架或骨架雏形,经包覆生长的包壳状兰绿藻的粘结而形成坚固的骨架,架间充填亮晶方解石。粘结岩由包壳(或迭层)状兰绿藻和少量被缠绕的生物组成粘结...

生物礁的研究对油气田的勘探具有重要意义。黄泥塘生物礁是我们1977年在鄂西利川县黄泥塘公社一带实测二迭系剖面时发现的。其层位属上二迭统长兴组第二段第一亚段(P_1C_1~2)。出露于黄泥塘背斜两翼和北东倾没端,呈北东——南西向展布。已见长度15公里,宽4.5公里,最大厚度134.3米。礁相段岩石除具有质纯、色浅、结构构造不均匀以及在产状上呈明显的古地貌凸起等特点外,富含原地生长的造礁生物(指礁核)是其主要特征。主要的造礁生物有海绵、苔藓虫、珊瑚、层孔虫和藻类等。其中海绵和包壳状兰绿藻在数量上是最重要的。黄泥塘生物礁的礁核和礁前出露较完整。礁核亚相岩石根据其结构特征所反映的抗波方式,可分为障积岩、粘结~骨架岩和粘结岩三种。障积岩是本区出露最多的一种礁核亚相岩石,具障积式结构特征,亦即在原地生长的海绵等造礁生物之间,广泛发育灰泥杂基,反映了沉积物是通过造礁生物对灰泥杂基的障碍作用而抗波的。粘结~骨架岩是发育最成熟的礁核岩石,具有粘结~骨架式结构特征,亦即指状、块状造礁生物组成骨架或骨架雏形,经包覆生长的包壳状兰绿藻的粘结而形成坚固的骨架,架间充填亮晶方解石。粘结岩由包壳(或迭层)状兰绿藻和少量被缠绕的生物组成粘结式格架,架间充填亮晶方解石。礁前亚相岩石为砾屑灰岩和生物屑灰岩。根据黄泥塘生物礁各剖面纵向微相特征,可将礁的发育史分为成礁初期;主要成礁期;断续成礁期和退化期等四个时期。溶孔和晶间孔是礁相岩石的主要储集空间,最近鄂西某地巳从与黄泥塘生物礁的同时期礁相岩石中钻开了较高产的气层,从而进一步证实了本期生物礁的良好含气性能,展示出礁性气田勘探的良好前景。

 
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