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    The histopathology changes were observed with light microscopy. Results Compared with those of control or CO inhalation alone group at the same time point,the levels of TNF-α,IL-6,and injury score were increased and IL-10 level was decreased in LPS injection group(all P<0.05).
    结果LPS注入组TNF-α、IL-6及损伤评分高于,IL-10低于相应时间点的对照组及单纯CO吸入组(P均<0.05),组内各时间点比较,只有损伤评分随观察时程延长而增加(P均<0.05);
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    Eighty-one rats were randomly divided into control group and traumatic group. The traumatic group were divided into 30min, 2h, 6h, 12h, 24h, 48h, 72h, 168h group according to the observation point.
    81只Wister大鼠随机分为对照组和脑损伤组,脑损伤组按伤后不同观察时相点又分为30min,2h、6h、12h、24h、48h、72h、168h组。
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    The detection rate of chronic atrophic gastritis by magnifying endoscopy was 94.3%(33/35), which was significantly higher than that by routine endoscopy (22.9%, 8/35)(P<0.01).
    放大内镜对萎缩性胃炎的检出率94.3%(33/35)明显高于未放大观察时的22.9%(8/35)(p<0.01)。 (3) 肠化生的小凹形态主要有C、D和E型。
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    3. Fundus examinataion: The retina and retinal vessels of the eyes were observed by ophthalmoscope, fundus color photography and fundus fluorescein angiography at each time spot.
    3.检查方法和观察指标:每只眼术前及术后各个观察时相点均采用眼底镜检查、眼底照相及荧光素眼底血管造影(FFA),观察实验组和对照组眼底视网膜血管和视网膜本身的变化。
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    There are many applications that require the fitting of a parametric model to data in artificial intelligence statistics ,machine-learning, pattern-recognition. lt is often desired to estimate the maximum-likelihood or maximum-posterior likelihood . When all of the variables of the model are directly observable in the data, then it is relatively straightforward.
    在人工智能,数理统计,机器学习,模式识别中有许多的应用都要进行模型的参数估计,也就是要进行极大似然估计(Maximum likelihood estimation)或极大后验似然估计(Maximum-posterior-likelihood estimation).当模型中的变量均可以直接观察时,极大似然估计或极大后验似然估计是显然的.但是当某些变量是隐藏的,这时进行极大似然估计就比较复杂。
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  hour of observation
Parameters of the model rigidity spectrum of CRs are determined for every hour of observation.
      
cells in preparations from the 4th hour of observation.
      
The ability of a TeV telescope to see a 5 sigma signal from a source in an hour of observation is now a reality.
      
By clear situations is here meant situations which have 60 minutes of direct sun light within the last hour of observation.
      
Most of the spindle images were recognized during the first hour of observation.
      
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Cryptolepisin is a cardiac glycoside isolated from the roots of Cryptolepis buchanani Roem. et Schult., which was collected in the subtropical zones of Yunnan. It gave positive reactions with Legal and Keller-Kiliani tests. Cryptolepisin produced a systolic standstill in frog heart in situ. On urethanized rabbits, an i.v. dose of 6 mg/kg increased the amplitude of heart contractions, decreased the rate, and finally stopped the heart in systole. When the isolated guinea pig heart was perfused, cryptolepisin in...

Cryptolepisin is a cardiac glycoside isolated from the roots of Cryptolepis buchanani Roem. et Schult., which was collected in the subtropical zones of Yunnan. It gave positive reactions with Legal and Keller-Kiliani tests. Cryptolepisin produced a systolic standstill in frog heart in situ. On urethanized rabbits, an i.v. dose of 6 mg/kg increased the amplitude of heart contractions, decreased the rate, and finally stopped the heart in systole. When the isolated guinea pig heart was perfused, cryptolepisin in concentrations 1.5×10~(-5) or 3.0×10~(-5) induced successive positive inotropic action and final stoppage of the heart in systole. It induced in guinea pigs ECG changes similar to those induced by digitalis. It caused vomiting in pigeons. The minimum lethal dose of cryptolepisin in pigeons were found to be 2.914±0.037 mg/kg, while that of adonidine was 2.829±0.023. By testing in pigeons, the accumulation rate of cryptolepisin was found to be 32.5% at the end of 24 hours after administration.

云南野生植物大暗消根中提得的白叶藤甙(Cryptolepisin)可使蛙心停止于收缩状态。兔静脉注射6毫克/公斤可使心动振幅增大,继而产生心率不整,最后停止于收缩期。按Langendorff法制备离体豚鼠心脏,1.5×10~(-5)溶液灌注时收缩振幅增大4—5倍,心率减慢,继而出现心收缩不规则,60分钟后停止于收缩期。3×10~(-5)溶液灌注时,作用更显著而迅速,20—30分钟后心脏停止于收缩状态。用乌拉坦麻醉的豚鼠作心电图观察时,本品能产生典型的洋地黄样心电图改变。按中国药典规定测定镐的最小致死量为2.914±0.037毫克/公斤。按户木田法预耠鸽50%致死量,24小时后测定其平均蓄积率为32.5%。

Pyquiton, namely praziquantel or Embay 8440, is a new kind 6f antischistoso-mal drugs. It has been demonstrated that pyquiton displays the advantages of lower toxicity, shorter course of treatment and higher efficacy in the treatment of schistosomiasis japonica in both experimental animals and human cases.The present paper reports the histopathological damages of Schistosoma japo-nicum and host liver caused by pyquiton therapy.The resulte are summarized as follows:1.When infected mice were treated with pyquiton...

Pyquiton, namely praziquantel or Embay 8440, is a new kind 6f antischistoso-mal drugs. It has been demonstrated that pyquiton displays the advantages of lower toxicity, shorter course of treatment and higher efficacy in the treatment of schistosomiasis japonica in both experimental animals and human cases.The present paper reports the histopathological damages of Schistosoma japo-nicum and host liver caused by pyquiton therapy.The resulte are summarized as follows:1.When infected mice were treated with pyquiton at a single oral dose of 300 to 500mg/kg, numerous dead worms were odserved in the liver sections as early as 24 hours after the medication under the optical microscopic examination. The histological changes consisted mainly of degeneration and necrosis of the integument and intestinal epithelial cells of the worms. Besides numerous inflammatory cells invading the parenchyma of the worms via integument were also detected.The ultrastructural observations on the integument of worms perfused out from infected mice 24 hours after treatment with pyquiton at a single oral dose of 500 mg/kg, were made by transmission electron microscopy.Main lesions of the integument indued expansion and rupture of the cytoplasmic process, emergence of large vacuoles containing residual sudstance, ovoid bodies and myelin-like structures change of touch junction of the plasmic membrane, formation of bridge-like structures of cytoplasmic process, decrease in rod-like, discoid and spherical secretory bodies as will as appearance of numerous vesicles in the latter.2.Histochemical observations showed that in schistosomes maintained in culture medium containing 3-10 μg/ml of pyquiton for 6 to 48 hours, or worms recovered from mice treated with the drug at a single oral dose of 300mg/kg, the contents of glycogen, AKP and RNA were markedly decreased or even disappeared. On the contrary, ACP and alkalin protein reactions were stronger than those in the control. No apparent chasges were seen in the content and distribution of DNA, tyrosine, tryptophan, histidine, protein bound α-amino groups and SH groups, and phenolase as compared with the controls.3. After administration of pyquiton to the mice and rabbits infected with Schisto-soma japonicum at a single oral dose of 300 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg, respectively, no apparent histopathological lesions were observed in their lives except for the fact that a few focal areas of coagulation necroses could be seen occasionally in the mouse livers 1 to 3 days after the medication.Meanwhile, the hepatic cell division phase was somewhat increased.lt could return to normal 1 week later. 3-4 weeks after the treatment, a few surviving female worms resumed oviposition, but the cellular reaction around the living eggs was rather mild; the fibrosis of the liver containing dead or degenerated eggs was markedly decreased or completely resolved. It is worthy to note that 4-8 weeks after the termination of treatment, a few Iw bloody cysts ( 5-7mm in diameter ) containing male worms which were still living but encapsulated by connective tissue, had been observed along the liver margin of some rabbits.

实验证明,感染血吸虫的小鼠一次口服吡喹酮300~500mg/kg24小时后,肝内即出现很多死虫,其体表及肠管上皮变性坏死,并有炎细胞侵入虫体。经吡喹酮作用后,两性血吸虫体表组织超微结构的变化主要为:细胞质突起膨大、破裂和形成桥样结构;细胞质内出现含有残余体样及髓鞘样结构的巨大空泡或卵园形小体;杆状、盘状及球状分泌体明显减少,特别是球状分泌体内形成很多空泡,以及体表浆膜有紧密连结变化。体内、体外试验结果表明,经吡喹酮作用后,两性血吸虫体内糖原,碱性磷酸酶及RNA均明显减少或消失;酸性磷酸酶及碱性蛋白质均显著增加,而DNA、酪氨酸、色氨酸、组氨酸,结合α-氨基蛋白质、巯基及酚酶等组成,则无明显变化。 感染血吸虫的小鼠及家兔,于一次口服吡喹酮各为300及60mg/kg后,肉眼观察时,只在少数鼠肝内见有少量的点状凝固性坏死灶,并未见有斑块坏死病变。服药3~4周后,残留的雌虫恢复产卵,但活卵周围的细胞反应很轻,同时,死亡虫卵和变性虫卵周围的纤维结缔组织亦明显减少或消散。此外,服药4~8周后少数兔肝边缘查见血性囊泡,内含被结缔组织包围的活的雄虫。

Embryoids were obtained from the pollen callus of grape. Afther they hald developed into young halploid plantlets on the solid culture medium, some epidermal cells of the mesocotyl.hypcotyl, leaf and the apper part of the root dedifferentiated to embryonic state end devided actively From one or two suck cells amulticellulur mass was formed on the surface and then developed into an embryoid which always grew toa plantlet, when slaughed off and cultured.

由葡萄(Vitis Vinisera L)花药愈伤组织产生的胚状体形成单倍体幼苗后,经4—5次继代培养,发现其表皮细胞具有形成胚状体和进一步发育成幼苗的能力。胚状体的表层也具有同样的能力。将这样的一棵幼苗,整株置于液体培养中,在黑暗中震荡培养一周,然后在光照下静止培养,可获得大量完整的小植栋。实验结果证明葡萄单倍体的体细胞具有再生完整植株的全能性。在植物组织和细胞培养中,通过胚状体再进一步形成幼植物具有繁殖数量多、成苗速度快和结构完整的特点。因此,对于胚状体发生的研究,已经引起人们广泛的注意。目前,在植物的组织培养中,记载有胚状体发生的植物已涉及到广泛的分类类群,产生胚状体的离体培养物也有多种多样。但是对于胚状体形态发生的详细研究报导甚少。在1965年,Konor和Nataraja利用石龙芮的下胚轴进行切片观察时,看到了一系列胚状体发生的组织学过程。1970年Backs-Hüseman,D等在胡萝卜的单细胞悬浮培养中,见到了游离单细胞发育成胚状体的过程,1974年,Sunderland等在烟草中,也报导了小孢子胚状体的发生过程。但是,在具有经济价值的木本果树中,尚无这方面的报导。本文以葡萄单倍体幼...

由葡萄(Vitis Vinisera L)花药愈伤组织产生的胚状体形成单倍体幼苗后,经4—5次继代培养,发现其表皮细胞具有形成胚状体和进一步发育成幼苗的能力。胚状体的表层也具有同样的能力。将这样的一棵幼苗,整株置于液体培养中,在黑暗中震荡培养一周,然后在光照下静止培养,可获得大量完整的小植栋。实验结果证明葡萄单倍体的体细胞具有再生完整植株的全能性。在植物组织和细胞培养中,通过胚状体再进一步形成幼植物具有繁殖数量多、成苗速度快和结构完整的特点。因此,对于胚状体发生的研究,已经引起人们广泛的注意。目前,在植物的组织培养中,记载有胚状体发生的植物已涉及到广泛的分类类群,产生胚状体的离体培养物也有多种多样。但是对于胚状体形态发生的详细研究报导甚少。在1965年,Konor和Nataraja利用石龙芮的下胚轴进行切片观察时,看到了一系列胚状体发生的组织学过程。1970年Backs-Hüseman,D等在胡萝卜的单细胞悬浮培养中,见到了游离单细胞发育成胚状体的过程,1974年,Sunderland等在烟草中,也报导了小孢子胚状体的发生过程。但是,在具有经济价值的木本果树中,尚无这方面的报导。本文以葡萄单倍体幼苗为材料,进行切片观察和培养,对葡萄胚状体的发生进行了初步的探讨。

 
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