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  till
    Economic feasibility was a restrictive factor in the use of cattle to till the fields in ancient history.
    在中国古代的经济史中,牛的使用,有一个经济上的可行性问题。 西汉小家庭农业的精细作,不利于使用牛
短句来源
  tilling
    On the Economic Structure of the Han Nationality Men Tilling the Land and Women Weaving in Ancient Times
    汉族古代男妇织经济结构论
短句来源
    On the Use of Cattle in Tilling Fields in Ancient Chinese Economic History
    中国古代经济史中的牛
短句来源
    And Qing Dynasty saw the dwindling average population size in such families and the cattle tilling was therefore gradually dropped out.
    明清时期,小农核心家庭的土地配置和人口逐渐减少,牛逐渐退出,农业的经营规模越来越小,并且越来越重视精细作。
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  tillage
The Effect of Tillage and Mesorelief on the Structure of Soil Microbial Cenoses
      
The effect of primary tillage practices on the agrophysical properties of southern Chernozems in the Volga region
      
Changes in the agrophysical properties of chernozemic soil upon different modes and depths of primary tillage operations have been studied.
      
It is shown that the amount of water-stable aggregates with a diameter larger than 0.25 mm varies within 70-80% upon different practices of primary tillage in the crop rotation system.
      
A part of the Brut 2 burial site was subjected to intensive agricultural use (more than 30-year-long irrigation and regular tillage).
      
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  ploughing
The mixture area consists of various constituents of frictional pairs without ploughing and rolling trace.
      
Saturated hydraulic conductivity values, evaluated in the ploughing treatment at the beginning and end of the vegetation period differed up to 4-times.
      
According to the soil hydraulic properties and measured soil water regime, ploughing and deep loosening created the most favourable soil conditions for the plants.
      
Metallographic examinations revealed that unreinforced ZA43 alloy had deep ploughing grooves with obvious adhesion phenomenon, whereas TiC/ZA43 composites had smooth worn surface.
      
When the fumigant was no longer detectable, a top soil treatment with either 150 l/ha metam-sodium or 180 kg/ha dazomet (active compound methyl isothiocyanate) was applied, followed immediately by autumn ploughing.
      
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  till
agrili emerged from mid June to mid August with the peak in July in 2003, and it lasted from late May till late July with the peak during late June to early July in 2004.
      
The process starts at the late M phase and lasts till the appropriate time of the S phase for each initiation site.
      
With the increase of pCMB/enzyme ratio the enzyme was gradually inhibited till almost completely inactivated at the pCMB/enzyme ratio of 20 : 1.
      
Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that with the increase of pCMB/enzyme ratio the bands of native enzyme decreased till completely vanished.
      
The satellite passes chosen for the detailed analysis and modeling lay approximately along the cusp/cleft band from afternoon till prenoon MLT sectors, thus emphasizing the pitch-angle dispersion role with respect to the dispersion due to convection.
      
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  tilling
Overall, earthworm densities and biomass in the no-till system were 70% greater than under conventional tilling, and enchytraeid densities and biomass in the no-till system were 50%-60% greater.
      
(3) CO2 fluxes in cultivated grassland established on peatland were measured in grassy subsites and in subsites where the growth of grass was prevented by regular tilling.
      
Remaining plant residues, total and active microbial biomass and mineralized C were determined at 0-5?cm and 5-15?cm depths, at three sampling times: wheat tilling, silking and maturity.
      
MNU-induced mutant pools and high performance TILLING enable finding of any gene mutation in rice
      
A modified TILLING system using non-labeled primers and fast capillary gel electrophoresis was applied for high-throughput detection of single nucleotide substitution mutations.
      
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Small scale peasant economy is not only the inevitable product of history, but also the normal form founded on simple manual labour after entering the Iron Age. Even the tenant peasant economy also had some relative rationalization. The style of small scale family farming which doesn't prevent the development of the commodity economy, will exist for a very long time in the future as vehicle for the Chinese modern agriculture.

小农生产组织形式不仅是历史的必然产物 ,而且是进入铁器时代之后简单手工劳动基础上的正常组织形式 ,即便是佃小农经济也具有一定的相对的合理性 ;家庭小农生产组织形式不但不阻碍商品经济的发展 ,而且还将成为我国现代农业的承运工具 ,在未来相当长的一段时间里延存。

The author puts forward in this paper a new view about the social and economic system during the Period of Warring States. The distribution form of the social and economic system was a compulsory production-related contracting system for the plot-holding peasants based on the state ownership of land. It was an official communal economic system, taking the state administration as the center of power and the agriculture as the foundation, recruiting soldiers from the peasants, and merging government administration,...

The author puts forward in this paper a new view about the social and economic system during the Period of Warring States. The distribution form of the social and economic system was a compulsory production-related contracting system for the plot-holding peasants based on the state ownership of land. It was an official communal economic system, taking the state administration as the center of power and the agriculture as the foundation, recruiting soldiers from the peasants, and merging government administration, farming and armed forces into one. It was actually an integration of political organization, society, economic production, military force and even spiritual and cultural life swayed by the state power, embodying the fact that everything was put under the rule and control of the state political power. The land was divided into plots by the state, which were then given to the peasants for tilling, with the ownership completely in the hands of the government, and these plots were exchanged regularly. Under these circumstances it was impossible for the new landlord class to emerge. The prevailing political and economic relations were rule and exploitation of the subjects by the government and the so-called class relations were only found in the opposition between the state and the people. The theory of newly emerging landlord class in the Warring States Period does not hold water.

战国社会经济制度的支配形态是在土地国有制基础上 ,通过国家授田 ,建立起强制性的份地农分定产承包责任制。这是一种官社或官公社经济体制。官社经济体制是在土地国有制下 ,以国家行政系统为统绪 ,以农为本 ,寓兵于农的新的政、农、军合一的社会经济体制。其首要特点是政社合一 ,政治、社会、经济、军事 ,乃至精神文化生活等在国家政权支配下的一体化。这种经济体制下 ,由于实行份地授田 ,政治经济关系主要是在政府与民之间发生的统治剥削关系 ,所谓阶级关系也都表现在官民对立之中。传统的战国新兴封建地主阶级说有违于历史真实。

The farming-studying culture in ancient times conveys the ideal of certain times and certain classes,and its significance contibutes to form a kind of culture environment.The author discusses the interactional relation between farming-studying and Popele′s living environment from the angle of enviroment folkloristics.

中国古代的的读文化 ,表达了特定时代、特定阶层的生活理想。它的意义 ,在于促成了一种文  化生态环境的形成。本文从生态民俗学的角度 ,以楠溪江古村落为例 ,对读文化中的环境意识与人居环境的  互动关系作了探索

 
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